This paper describes a measurement technique that was successfully applied in a study of bed load transport of large spherical solid particles in a shallow and supercritical flow (Fr = 2.59–3.17) down a steep slope. The experimental condition was characterized by the relatively large solid particle size compared to the flow depth (d p /h = 0.23–0.35), and compared to the tracer diameter (d p /d t ≈ 130). The technique incorporated particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to simultaneously measure the characteristics of the two phases. In order to detect true solid particles and to distinguish them from each other and the unwanted objects, a particle characterization (PCR) algorithm based on Hough transform was employed. The output from the PCR process was utilized for PTV, as well as to generate the corresponding tracer images for special needs. Validation tests have confirmed the pixel accuracy and high reliability of the combined technique. Experimental results obtained with the developed technique include flow velocities, particle velocities, and concentration. The analysis has shown that the particle concentration profile followed an exponential relationship of the form similar to that of Rouse’s profiles, despite the large d p /h ratio. It also revealed the effect of phase interaction, as a low loading rate of light particles on the order of O(10−3) could yield a noticeable slowdown in the streamwise fluid velocity.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 17, 2012
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