A quantum watermarking scheme using simple and small-scale quantum circuits

A quantum watermarking scheme using simple and small-scale quantum circuits A new quantum gray-scale image watermarking scheme by using simple and small-scale quantum circuits is proposed. The NEQR representation for quantum images is used. The image sizes for carrier and watermark are assumed to be $$2n \times 2n$$ 2 n × 2 n and $$n \times n$$ n × n , respectively. At first, a classical watermark with $$n \times n$$ n × n image size and 8 bits gray scale is expanded to an image with $$2n \times 2n$$ 2 n × 2 n image size and 2 bits gray scale. Then the expanded image is scrambled to be a meaningless image by the SWAP gates that controlled by the keys only known to the operator. The scrambled image is embedded into the carrier image by the CNOT gates (XOR operation). The watermark is extracted from the watermarked image by applying operations in the reverse order. Simulation-based experimental results show that our proposed scheme is excellent in terms of three items, visual quality, robustness performance under noises, and computational complexity. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Quantum Information Processing Springer Journals

A quantum watermarking scheme using simple and small-scale quantum circuits

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 by Springer Science+Business Media New York
Subject
Physics; Quantum Information Technology, Spintronics; Quantum Computing; Data Structures, Cryptology and Information Theory; Quantum Physics; Mathematical Physics
ISSN
1570-0755
eISSN
1573-1332
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11128-016-1260-9
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

A new quantum gray-scale image watermarking scheme by using simple and small-scale quantum circuits is proposed. The NEQR representation for quantum images is used. The image sizes for carrier and watermark are assumed to be $$2n \times 2n$$ 2 n × 2 n and $$n \times n$$ n × n , respectively. At first, a classical watermark with $$n \times n$$ n × n image size and 8 bits gray scale is expanded to an image with $$2n \times 2n$$ 2 n × 2 n image size and 2 bits gray scale. Then the expanded image is scrambled to be a meaningless image by the SWAP gates that controlled by the keys only known to the operator. The scrambled image is embedded into the carrier image by the CNOT gates (XOR operation). The watermark is extracted from the watermarked image by applying operations in the reverse order. Simulation-based experimental results show that our proposed scheme is excellent in terms of three items, visual quality, robustness performance under noises, and computational complexity.

Journal

Quantum Information ProcessingSpringer Journals

Published: Feb 20, 2016

References

  • Hiding messages in quantum data
    Gea-Banacloche, J
  • Secure communication without encryption?
    Martin, K

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