Qual Quant (2009) 43:977–981
A qualitative integration of self-determination theory
and expectation-conﬁrmation theory using physical
education as an example
Kurtis Ko-Li Chang · Pi-Shan Hsu · Chieh-Peng Lin
Published online: 10 April 2008
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008
Abstract This study proposes a conceptual model based on both self-determination theory
(SDT) and expectation-conﬁrmation theory (ECT) using physical education as an example.
It is important to try integrating SDT and ECT together given that satisfaction is a common
core in both theories. In the proposed model, need support conﬁrmation is inﬂuenced by
support expectation and perceived support, while need satisfaction is inﬂuenced by support
expectation and need support conﬁrmation. Accordingly, being inﬂuenced by need satisfac-
tion, self-determined motivation has a positive inﬂuence on students’ participation intention
in optional PE courses. Finally, the discussion and limitation about the proposed model are
Keywords Need support conﬁrmation · Need satisfaction · Motivation ·
In the past decade, academic studies aimed at learning student experiences within the
context of physical education have increased (Standage et al. 2005). Recognized by previous
research as a principle vehicle for health promotion (Cavill et al. 2001; Standage et al. 2005),
school-based PE provides with a context in which the health, social, and psychological gains
linked with physical activity may be promoted to large numbers of students. However, it is
well known that the physical activity levels of young students are below the levels thought
K. K.-L. Chang
College of Humanities & Management, Fooyin University, 151, Chinhsueh Rd.,
Ta-liao, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Department of General Education, Ching Kuo Institute of Management and Health,
336, Fushing Rd., Keelung, Taiwan, R.O.C.
C.-P. Lin (
Graduate School of Technological and Vocational Education, National Yunlin University of Science
and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan, R.O.C.