The full-length sequences of 34 Iranian cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) isolates were compared with others from public nucleotide sequence databases to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic variability and patterns of genetic exchange in CaMV isolates from Iran. Based on the severity of symptoms and their ability to infect Brassica oleracea var. capitata , Iranian CaMV isolates were grouped into two distinct biotypes: latent/mild mottle (LI/MMo) and severe (S) infection. Recombination breakpoints were detected between the large intergenic region (LIR) and open reading frame (ORF) V (event 2); between ORF VII and ORF II (event 3), between ORF I and ORF III (event 4), and within ORF VI (event 1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Iranian CaMV isolates clustered into two subgroups belonging to group I (GI) that were distinct from North American and European isolates from group II (GII). Northeast Iranian isolates (subgroup B) and CaMV isolates from subgroup A closely corresponded to the S and LI/MMo biological groups, respectively. Genome-wide pairwise identity analysis of the CaMV isolates revealed three regions of pairwise identity representation: 92–94 % for GII and 94–96 % and 98–100 % for subgroups A and B. The within-population diversity was lower than the between-population diversity, suggesting the contribution of a founder effect on diversification of CaMV isolates. Amino acid sequences were conserved, with ω values ranging from 0.074 to 0.717 in different proteins. Thirteen amino acids in the deduced proteins of ORFs I, II, III, VI and VII were under positive selection ( ω > 1), whereas purifying selection applied to the proteins encoded by ORFs IV and V. This study suggests that variation in the CaMV population can be explained by host-range differentiation and selection pressure. Moreover, recombination analysis revealed that a genomic exchange is responsible for the emergence of CaMV strains, providing valuable new information for understanding the diversity and evolution of caulimoviruses.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 2014
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera