SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTS
A NEW GENERATION OF UNSHAPED REFRACTORIES
Yu. E. Pivinskii
and O. G. Us’yarov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 1, pp. 35 – 41, January, 2006.
Original article submitted July 15, 2005.
The world trends in the development and consumption of refractory materials are considered. A brief over
view of the advance in the foreign production of zero-cement refractory castables (ceramic castables) is given.
The importance of controlled gelation techniques for accelerated structure formation in refractories is empha
TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT
Development trends in the refractory industry are closely
related to the needs of consuming sectors of industry that
continually strive to increase productivity and update tech-
nologies aimed at saving resources and improving product
quality. This state of affairs and the never-abating competi-
tion in the market for refractory material lead to a relation
between manufacturers and consumers that can be character
ized as the “dictate of the customer” . Two main trends are
clearly distinguished: on the one hand, one strives to mini
mize the specific consumption of refractory materials and, on
the other hand, to increase the share of unshaped high-quality
Despite the substantial increase in world steel output
(amounting to about one billion tons per year), the volume of
production of refractories (whose major consumer is the me
tallurgy) has decrease markedly in recent years. Thus, in Ja
pan, the annual volume of production decreased over the last
decade from 1.5 to 1.0 million tons. By way of example, the
specific consumption of refractories in the steel-making
industry dropped from 11 to 7 kg/ton. Simultaneously, the
overall cost of production of refractories worldwide did not
diminish; rather, it showed a tendency to increase.
The demand for refractories by the end of the 20th cen
tury was estimated to be about 18 billion euros . The de
crease in output of refractories and increase in their overall
cost were primarily due to the use of high-quality raw mate-
rials and introduction of sophisticated high-technology
equipments. The general trend in the assortment of refractory
products can be illustrated by the statistical data in Fig. 1.
The bar chart in Fig. 1 shows that, over a period of 1993 to
2004, there has been a substantial increase in the output of
basic unshaped refractory materials — refractory castables
from 23 to 28.5% and gunning mixes from 10.2 to 16.7%.
The output of all types of shaped refractories over the
same period was observed to decrease significantly —
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 47, No. 1, 2006
1083-4877/06/4701-0030 © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Kerambet – Ogneupor Research and Development Firm, St. Pe
tersburg, Russia; St. Petersburg State Technological Institute
(Technical University), St. Petersburg, Russia.
Fig. 1. The relative share of basic refractory materials produced in
Japan in 1993 and 2004, %: 1 ) refractory castables; 2 ) gunning
mixes; 3 ) chamotte; 4 ) high-alumina; 5 ) periclase-carbon;
6 ) chrome-periclase; 7 ) corundum-graphite refractory.