Background: Paleozoic holocephalian tooth plates are rarely found articulated in their original positions. When they are found isolated, it is difficult to associate the small, anterior tooth plates with the larger, more posterior ones. Tooth plates are presumed to have evolved from fusion of tooth files. However, there is little fossil evidence for this hypothesis. Results: We report a tooth plate having nearly perfect bilateral symmetry from the Mississippian (Chesterian Stage) Bangor Limestone of Franklin County, Alabama, USA. The high degree of symmetry suggests that it may have occupied a symphyseal or parasymphyseal position. The tooth plate resembles Deltodopsis? bialveatus St. John and Worthen, 1883, but differs in having a sharp ridge with multiple cusps arranged along the occlusal surface of the presumed labiolingual axis, rather than a relatively smooth occlusal surface. The multicusped shape is suggestive of a fused tooth file. The middle to latest Chesterian (Serpukhovian) age is determined by conodonts found in the same bed. Conclusion: The new tooth plate is interpreted as an anterior tooth plate of a chondrichthyan fish. It is referred to Arcuodus multicuspidatus Itano and Lambert, gen. et sp. nov. Deltodopsis? bialveatus is also referred to Arcuodus. Keywords: Chondrichthyes, Cochliodontiformes, Carboniferous, Mississippian, Bangor limestone, Alabama, Conodonts Background Paleontological studies show that the elasmobranch dental Extant chondrichthyan fishes comprise two clades: the pattern of rows of tooth files, with teeth replaced in a elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) and the holoce- linguo-labial sequence has been highly conserved, since it phalians (chimaeras). Extant holocephalians possess a appears in the early stem-chondrichthyan Doliodus pro- dentition consisting of three pairs of tooth plates, a large blematicus (Emsian, Early Devonian, about 397 Ma) . pair in the mandible and two pairs in the palate . The Comparatively little investigation of tooth plate develop- elasmobranch arrangement of teeth, consisting of rows of ment in extant holocephalians has been made to date. tooth files, is thought to be plesiomorphic for crown-group How and when the transition from tooth files to tooth chondrichthyans. Some early holocephalians, e.g., Helodus, plates in holocephalians took place is poorly understood. had a dentition consisting partially of tooth files . The age of the most recent common ancestor of modern Recently, tooth pattern formation in extant elasmo- elasmobranchs and holocephalians has been estimated, branchs has been studied in great detail, including studies by a molecular clock method based on mitogenomic se- of its embryonic development and gene expression [3–5]. quences, to be late Silurian, about 421 Ma . Fossil evidence places the date of divergence between the two clades to be no later than the late Carboniferous * Correspondence: Wayne.Itano@aya.yale.edu (Pennsylvanian)  or the latest Devonian . Due to Museum of Natural History, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Itano and Lambert Zoological Letters (2018) 4:12 Page 2 of 10 the poor fossil record of holocephalians following the Anterior tooth plates of holocephalians are even less well end-Permian extinctions, it is not known from which understood than the posterior ones. Being small, they are group of Paleozoic holocephalians the extant chimaer- less likely to be preserved or collected. Apparently none of oids are descended. Recent studies of tooth plates of the articulated Cochliodus contortus or Streblodus oblongus the extant holocephalian Callorhinchus milii have dentitions preserve the teeth or tooth plates of the extreme found that each tooth plate is of a compound nature, anterior region. One of the few holocephalian dentitions representing the fusion of two teeth from a reduced preserved with all of the anterior tooth plates in their tooth file . Studies of the transition from tooth original positionsisthatof Harpagofututor volsellorhi- files to tooth plates are of interest in their own right. nus, from the Chesterian (Serpukhovian) Bear Gulch They also have the potential of helping to elucidate Limestone of Montana, USA . Fig. 1 shows the- the phylogeny of the extant holocephalians, particu- correlation between the standard subdivisions of the larly when combined with the study of the ontogeny Carboniferous Period (e.g., Serpukhovian) and the of tooth plates of extant holocephalians. North American regional subdivisions (e.g., Chesterian). A holocephalian tooth plate of unusual morphology was The data are taken from (, fig. 23.1). H. volsellorhinus recently found in the late Mississippian (early Carboniferous) has three anterior tooth plates (one symphyseal and two Bangor Limestone of northern Alabama, USA. An abstract parasymphyseal) in the lower jaw and two (parasymphyseal) has been published previously . Chondrichthyan remains in the upper jaw. The dentition of another Mississippian from the Mississippian of northern Alabama have been holocephalian, Chondrenchelys problematica (Order Chon- reviewed recently . The holocephalian taxa reported drenchelyformes), has been described recently [16, 17]. In from the Bangor Limestone are: Deltodus sp. cf. D. addition to possessing sets of tooth plates in the upper undulatus, Helodus crenulatis, and Psammodus sp. and lower jaws, not too dissimilar to those of Mesozoic Fossil tooth plates of holocephalian chondrichthyan and Cenozoic holocephalians, C. problematica pos- fishes are usually found isolated from each other and sesses sets of extramandibular teeth arranged around from other remains. Isolated tooth plates have been the periphery of the anterior end of the mouth. This classified into species, genera, families, and higher taxo- condition is not known in any other chondrichthyan. If nomic categories based on morphology, but their true found isolated, these anterior teeth would have been phylogenetic relationships are often uncertain. Undoubt- identified as those of petalodonts (Order Petalodoni- edly, tooth plates from different positions within the formes). This example illustrates the difficulty of deter- dentitions of the same fishes have been given distinct mining whether isolated teeth or tooth plates belong to specific or even generic names. As closely associated or the same species, as well as the difficulty of identifying articulated remains are found, some of these genera or isolated chondrichthyan teeth or tooth plates, even to species will become junior synonyms of others. There the level of order. seems to be no reasonable alternative to this somewhat Holocephalian tooth plates are presumed to have evolved awkward procedure, but it has worked well over time in by fusion of tooth files. However, there is little fossil evi- a similar manner with the multi-element feeding appara- dence for this hypothesis. The dentition of Helodus simplex tuses of conodonts. The most complete guide to holoce- Agassiz, 1838 , the type species of Helodus,includes phalian fishes is the monograph of Stahl . Only a both tooth files and tooth plates . Figure 2 shows a small fraction of the species listed in that monograph tooth file of Helodus simplex. The tooth plates in the denti- are known from articulated or associated remains. tion of Helodus have corrugated outlines, which may be Among the rare articulated and associated remains are remnants of their origin from separate teeth. Isolated tooth the following: (1) Largely complete single-jaw dentitions plates of this form have been given the genus name Pleuro- of the Mississippian cochliodontiform fishes Cochliodus plax. Figure 3 shows a tooth plate of Pleuroplax rankinei. contortus and Streblodus oblongus have been reported Both H. simplex and P. rankinei are known from articulated . It has been proposed that they represent the remains [19, 20]. These remains show that the two spe- mandibular and palatal dentitions, respectively, of the cies have a close relationship, but the dentition of P. same species . However, the association has not been rankinei appears to consist entirely of tooth plates, verified directly. (2) Three pairs of tooth plates, from the while that of H. simplex includes both tooth files and Pennsylvanian of Ohio, USA, apparently belonging to the tooth plates. The anterior tooth plates of H. volsellor- same fish, have been found in close association . The hinus display longitudinal ridges with bumps that two large plates presumed to be mandibular were previ- “distinctly resemble fused teeth” . ously described as Deltodus angularis, the two large plates The morphology of the recently-found tooth plate from presumed to be palatal, as Sandalodus carbonarius, and the Bangor Limestone suggests that it could shed some two small plates presumed to be anterior mandibular, as light on (1) the nature of anterior holocephalian dentitions Orthopleurodus carbonarius. and (2) on the transition from tooth files to tooth plates. Itano and Lambert Zoological Letters (2018) 4:12 Page 3 of 10 Fig. 2 Tooth file of Helodus simplex Agassiz, 1838 . One of several specimens labeled NHMUK PV P8216. a Lateral view. b occlusal view. Scale bars = 1 cm Fig. 1 Correlation of standard subdivisions of the Carboniferous Period with North American regional subdivisions. After (, fig. 23.1) Locality The tooth plate, ALMNH PV 2016.0002.0002, was found in a bed of limestone, near the shore of Little Bear Creek Fig. 3 Occlusal view of tooth plate of Pleuroplax rankinei (Hancock Reservoir, Franklin County, Alabama, USA (Fig. 4). The and Atthey, 1872) . One of eight tooth plates labeled NHMUK PV precise location is on file at the ALMNH and is available P1415. Lingual end to right. Scale bar = 5 mm to qualified researchers. Itano and Lambert Zoological Letters (2018) 4:12 Page 4 of 10 Fig. 4 a Map of the United States, with the state of Alabama outlined. b Map of Alabama with Franklin County highlighted. White dot marks location where holotype of Arcuodus multicuspidatus was found Methods bed, the presence of prominent rugosan coral clusters The piece of matrix containing the tooth plate was indicates a heterogenous sea floor and a diverse shal- immersed in a 5% solution of acetic acid. After 2 days, low marine environment (Fig. 5). the fossil was released from the matrix. The acetic acid Conodont P1 elements identified in the matrix from solution was changed several times during the 2 days. the bed were Cavusgnathus regularis, C. unicornis (α), No further preparation was necessary. C. unicornis (β), and C. naviculus. According to , C. Since biostratigraphically useful macrofossils, such naviculus has the most restricted stratigraphic range of as blastoids or crinoids, were not found in the bed, these conodonts. Presence of C. naviculus fixes the age limestone matrix was processed for conodonts by of the bed as no earlier than Biozone 2 and no later standard acidization methods (e.g., ). Approxi- than Biozone 4 of , middle to latest Chesterian mately 2 kg of limestone matrix were broken into North American regional stage. The combined middle centimeter-sized pieces and immersed in a 15% solu- and late Chesterian correlates closely with the inter- tion of formic acid for 24 h. The insoluble residues national standard Serpukhovian Stage, which is late were then wet-sieved through 850 and 125 μm Mississippian (Fig. 1). screens. Once dried, the residue from the 125 μm screen was picked by hand for conodonts using a 000 brush under a binocular microscope. Results Conodont biostratigraphy The bed in which the tooth plate was found lies within the Bangor Limestone, which is Chesterian (early Car- boniferous = Mississippian) in age [22–25]. The Bangor Limestone in Franklin County is approximately 150 m thick . The bed in which the tooth plate was found is an indurated, medium-gray, bioclastic grainstone. The grains are numerically dominated by crinoid ossicles, which along with abundant bryozoan fragments and a high diversity of other fossil fragment types suggest nor- Fig. 5 Rugosan coral cluster at the type locality of Arcuodus multicuspidatus. The holotype specimen was found, displaced mal marine salinity. The grainstone fabric and abundant horizontally, at the same stratigraphic level. Rock hammer included rounded grains indicate high current or wave energy for scale. Photograph by L. White. Used with permission in a shallow marine setting. Laterally in the same Itano and Lambert Zoological Letters (2018) 4:12 Page 5 of 10 Systematic paleontology Chondrichthyes Huxley, 1880 . Euchondrocephali Lund and Grogan, 1997 . Holocephali Bonaparte, 1838 . Cochliodontiformes Obruchev, 1953 . Arcuodus Itano and Lambert, gen. nov., urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F03B0809-A0DE-475B-9E12- 5B3E231A319C Etymology From Latin arcus = arc and Greek ὀδούς = tooth. Type species Arcuodus multicuspidatus Itano and Lambert, sp. nov. Other included species Deltodopsis? bialveatus St. John and Worthen, 1883 . Diagnosis Tooth plates presumed to occupy an anterior position. Elongated labiolingually, compressed laterally. Bilaterally symmetric relative to labiolingual axis or nearly so. Width and height increase lingually. Occlusal surface shows presence of tubular dentine. Smooth parts of lateral surfaces become narrow basally and have concave Fig. 7 Specimen referred to Deltodopsis? bialveatus, AMNH FF6450. Here designated as Arcuodus bialveatus,comb.nov. a Occlusal view. curvature when viewed from labial or lingual ends. Basal Lingual end to left. Scale bar = 5 mm. b Lateral view. Lingual end to surface smooth and concave. left. Scale bar = 5 mm. c Basal view. Scale bar = 5 mm. Drawings published as Branson, 1906 (, pl. 41, figs. 8-9) Remarks The new genus includes some specimens assigned by St. John and Worthen to their newgenus Deltodopsis, Deltodopsis. However, only the species D. affinis, D. with some uncertainty, such as Deltodopsis? bialveatus sanctoludovici, and D. angustus were assigned without (Figs. 6 and 7). They did not designate a type species for question to Deltodopsis. All three species are currently assigned to Deltodus, according to Stahl . If this assign- ment is accepted, Deltodopsis is a junior synonym of Del- todus. Even if the assignment to Deltodus is not accepted, a new generic name is required for the new tooth plate (Figs. 8 and 9) and for Deltodopsis? bialveatus, since they cannot be shown definitively to belong to the same genus as Deltodopsis affinis, Deltodopsis sanctoludovici, or Delto- dopsis angustus. It is likely that the tooth plates referred to Arcuodus belong to the anterior parts of the dentitions of fish for which the more posterior tooth plates have already been given generic names, such as Cochliodus.If an artic- ulated dentition of such a fish is found, including tooth plates referable to Arcuodus and also to a previously named genus, Arcuodus would become a junior synonym of the previously named genus. Fig. 6 Occlusal view of holotype of Deltodopsis? bialveatus St. John Arcuodus multicuspidatus Itano and Lambert, sp. nov., and Worthen 1883, USNM V13017. Here designated as Arcuodus bialveatus, comb. nov. Lingual end to right. Millimeter scale divisions. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:AD81711A-3B81-4219-AF6F- Drawings of this specimen were published as St. John and Worthen, 924F47B0E1C6 1883 (, pl. 11, fig. 15). Image copyrighted, Smithsonian Institution, Etymology all rights reserved From the multiple cusps along the occlusal ridge. Itano and Lambert Zoological Letters (2018) 4:12 Page 6 of 10 lingual or labial ends, occlusal surface appears as a sharply pointed, angular ridge. The multicusped angular ridge distinguishes it from Arcuodus bialveatus (St. John and Worthen, 1883), comb. nov., which has a more smoothly convex occlusal surface. Description The holotype and only known specimen is an isolated tooth plate. The labiolingual length is 15 mm, the width is 4.5 mm, and the height is 5.0 mm. Unknown portions of both the lingual and labial ends are not preserved. The occlusal surface forms a sharp ridge, with six low cusps preserved. The occlusal surface shows presence of tubular dentine. Parallel vascular Fig. 8 Lateral view of holotype of Arcuodus multicuspidatus, Itano channels connecting to the surface pores are visible and Lambert, gen. et sp. nov., ALMNH PV 2016.0002.0002, prior to on a broken surface at the lingual end. The outline, extraction from the matrix. Millimeter scale divisions seen in occlusal view (Fig. 9a), has a remarkable de- gree of bilateral symmetry. Some asymmetry can be seen in the labial view (Fig. 9c). Whether this asym- Type locality metry is normal or is pathologic is unknown. Bangor Limestone, western Franklin County, Alabama, USA; middle to latest Chesterian. Arcuodus bialveatus (St. John and Worthen, 1883) comb. Holotype nov. Tooth plate, ALMNH PV 2016.0002.0002. 1883. Deltodopsis? bialveatus; St. John and Worthen , pp. 169–171, pl. 11, fig. 15 Diagnosis 1883. Deltodopsis? keokuk; St. John and Worthen , Species of Arcuodus having tooth plates in which the pp. 169–171, pl. 11, fig. 16 margin of occlusal surface forms a moderately curved, 1883. Deltodopsis? convexus; St. John and Worthen convex arc with several low cusps. When viewed from , pp. 169–171, pl. 11, fig. 17 Fig. 9 Holotype of Arcuodus multicuspidatus. a Occlusal view. Lingual end to right. Scale bar = 5 mm. b Lateral view. Lingual end to right. Scale bar = 5 mm. c Lingual view. Scale bar = 2 mm. d Basal view. Lingual end to right. Scale bar = 5 mm Itano and Lambert Zoological Letters (2018) 4:12 Page 7 of 10 1906. Deltodopsis? bialveatus; Branson , p. 1391, pl. 41, figs. 8-9 1999. Deltodus affinis; Stahl , pp. 70–71, fig. 67A Holotype A tooth plate, USNM V13017. Referred specimens Tooth plates, AMNH FF6450, USNM V13015, USNM V13016. Occurrence Burlington Limestone, Louisa County, IA, USA; Keokuk Limestone, Warsaw, IL, USA; Salem Limestone, Lanesville, IN, USA. Mississippian, Osagean to Meramecian = late Tournaisian to Viséan. Emended diagnosis Species of Arcuodus having tooth plates in which occlu- sal surface is more or less smooth and convex, never sharply ridged with cusps as in Arcuodus multicuspida- tus. Degree of symmetry with regard to the labiolingual axis varies from nearly bilaterally symmetric to moder- ately asymmetric. Remarks St. John and Worthen  defined three species based on small, narrow, tooth plates, referred with some un- certainty to Deltodopsis, as Deltodopsis? bialveatus, Del- todopsis? keokuk, and Deltodopsis? convexus. In defining the three species, based on tooth plates with differing morphologies, they expressed uncertainty as to whether Fig. 10 Syntype of Deltodopsis? convexus, USNM V13015. Here designated as Arcuodus bialveatus, comb. nov. a Occlusal view. the specimens represented different species or merely Lingual end to right. Scale bar = 5 mm. b Lateral view. Lingual end varieties. To this uncertainty should be added the pos- to right. Millimeters scale divisions. Drawings of this specimen were itional uncertainty, i.e., whether the tooth plates are published as St. John and Worthen, 1883 (, pl. 11, fig. 17). Images mandibular or maxillary and their precise position copyrighted, Smithsonian Institution, all rights reserved within either jaw. The high degree of symmetry of USNM V13015 (Fig. 10a) suggests that it may have oc- cupied a symphyseal position. The other specimens are of A. multicuspidatus (Fig. 9b, d). The occlusal surface asymmetric, suggesting that they may have occupied a of A. bialveatus, in contrast to that of A. multicuspida- non-symphyseal anterior position. Given the present tus, lacks sharp cusps, but has shallow undulations state of knowledge, the separation of D.? keokuk and D.? which vary from closely spaced (Fig. 7a), to widely convexus from D.? bialveatus would be unjustified. spaced (Fig. 10a), to not easily discernable (Fig. 6). Hence, we refer them both to Arcuodus bialveatus, comb. nov. In contrast to the specimens of D.? bialvea- Discussion tus and D.? convexus figured by St. John and Worthen Anterior dentitions , the type specimen of D.? keokuk does not appear to Anterior dentitions in holocephalians are poorly known be in the USNM collections. Its whereabouts are cur- and not easy to recognize when found isolated. The rently unknown. On the caption to fig. 67A, Stahl  re- near-perfect bilateral symmetry of the holotype of A. ferred the holotype of Deltodopsis? bialveatus, USNM multicuspidatus suggests that it occupied a symphyseal 13017, to Deltodus affinis, but without any justification. (Fig. 11a) or parasymphyseal (Fig. 11b) position at the Hence, that assignment is not recognized here. The basal anterior end of the jaw. Figure 11a and b show the tooth structure of A. bialveatus, narrowing basally and with a plate oriented with the wider end lingual and the narrow concave basal surface (Figs. 7b–c), is very similar to that end labial. This is the orientation that is to be expected Itano and Lambert Zoological Letters (2018) 4:12 Page 8 of 10 Fig. 11 Position of Arcuodus multicuspidatus tooth plate if (a) symphyseal, (b) parasymphyseal if growth is at the lingual end (e.g., lyodont growth) as from H. coxanus, nor of A. bialveatus from A. multicus- has been established for other tooth plates . pidatus. The tooth file of Helodus coxanus and the tooth Symphyseal tooth plates are unknown in extant, plates of A. multicuspidatus and of A. bialveatus form a Cenozoic, or Mesozoic chimaeroids. A symphyseal tooth morphological series, but, given the present state of plate is present in the Mesozoic holocephalian Myria- knowledge, it is impossible to know whether or not they canthus paradoxus . As has already been noted, H. form a phylogenetic series. The transition from tooth volsellorhinus has a symphyseal tooth plate. In cases files to tooth plates very likely occurred independently in where the tooth plates appear to be bilaterally symmet- several different lineages. The transition from tooth files ric, their position can reasonably be inferred to be sym- to tooth plates within the Helodontiformes (e.g., from physeal, even when they are found isolated. Examples Helodus simplex to Pleuroplax rankinei) was most likely are some specimens of P. rankinei (Fig. 3), the holotype independent of the transition, probably within the of A. multicuspidatus (Fig. 9a), and the syntype of Delto- dopsis? convexus (Fig. 10a), here referred to Arcuodus bialveatus. Function of anterior dentitions Anterior tooth plates might have served to grasp prey, which would be crushed with the larger poster- ior tooth plates. The multiple nodes on the occlusal surfaces of the holotype of A. multicuspidatus or on the anterior tooth plates of H. volsellorhinus may have facilitated such a function. An analogy could be made with the extant shark Heterodontus, which has files of small, sharp anterior teeth and large, blunt posterior teeth. Origin of tooth plates from tooth files With regard to the evolution of tooth plates from tooth files, it is interesting to compare the tooth whorl that is the holotype of Helodus coxanus (Fig. 12) with A. multi- cuspidatus. In H. coxanus, the crowns are separate, although the bases appear to be fused. Being bilaterally symmetric, it has always been presumed to have occu- pied a symphyseal position . The multiple pointed crowns could have been used to grasp prey, similarly to Fig. 12 Holotype of Helodus coxanus Newberry, 1897, USNM V3518. the anterior tooth files of Heterodontus. It seems prob- a Occlusal view. Lingual end to left. Millimeter scale divisions. b Lateral view. Lingual end to left. Millimeter scale divisions. A drawing able that A. multicuspidatus was descended from an an- of this specimen was published as Newberry, 1897 (, pl. 24, fig. cestor having a tooth whorl like that of H. coxanus. This 24). Images copyrighted, Smithsonian Institution, all rights reserved does not imply actual descent of A. multicuspidatus Itano and Lambert Zoological Letters (2018) 4:12 Page 9 of 10 Cochliodontiformes, that resulted in the tooth plate of Table 1 summarizes information regarding taxonomy, Arcuodus multicuspidatus. age, and morphology for the most important specimens Helodus coxanus was chosen for the comparison discussed here. Since the ages are for individual speci- because, compared to other, broadly similar tooth mens, the age ranges for the taxa are unknown, and files, such as that of Helodus simplex (Fig. 2)orof chondrichthyan species can have rather long age ranges. Helodus appendiculatus (e.g., NHMUK PV P2916), Because the classifications of the listed taxa are impre- the relative dimensions of the tooth file are similar to cise, the conclusions that can be made as to evolutionary those of the tooth plates here included in Arcuodus. trends are very limited. The crowns of both H. simplex and H. appendicula- tus are much wider mesio-distally than linguo-labially. Those of H. coxanus are much more compressed Conclusions mesio-distally, so that the overall shape of the tooth The new tooth plate from the Bangor Limestone of Ala- file matches that of the tooth plate of A. multicuspi- bama, USA, is referred to a new genus and species, Arcuo- datus rather closely. The comparison of A. multicus- dus multicuspidatus. The holotype and only known pidatus and A. bialveatus is natural, since the two specimen is interpreted as having occupied an anterior taxa are so close morphologically that they have been position. The multicusped morphology of the tooth plate assigned to the same genus. suggests that it might have had a grasping function. The The generic assignment of Helodus coxanus de- multiple cusps suggest that A. multicuspidatus might have serves some comment. Helodus simplex is the type evolved from a fish having a tooth file like that of species of Helodus and is also known from articulated Helodus coxanus, having separate teeth. A. bialvea- specimens . All other species of Helodus are tus, which possesses a tooth plate that lacks promin- founded on isolated teeth, many of which probably ent cusps, may have evolved from a fish possessing a should be referred to other genera. Many, if not most, tooth plate similar to that of A. multicuspidatus. of these are anterior teeth of other chondrichthyan The age of A. multicuspidatus is middle to latest Chester- fishes, which are known from other remains, such as ian (Serpukhovian). Several other tooth plates question- tooth plates. Until articulated remains are found, ably referred to Deltodopsis by St. John and Worthen there seems to be no way to determine which teeth are referred to Arcuodus bialveatus comb. nov. The and tooth plates belong to the same species. Unlike dentitions of the three taxa: Helodus coxanus, Arcuo- the situation for A. multicuspidatus and A. bialveatus, dus multicuspidatus,and Arcuodus bialveatus form a no close relationship between H. coxanus and H. sim- morphological sequence. Whether they also form a plex is implied by the fact that they are currently phylogenetic sequence is not possible to determine assigned the same genus name. with the present evidence. Table 1 Key specimens with taxonomy, ages, and features Specimen Fig. Original designation Current designation Taxonomic group Age Features NHMUK PV P8216 2 Helodus simplex Helodus simplex Helodontidae Pennsylvanian Tooth file, teeth mesiodistallly expanded and bilaterally symmetric or nearly so NHMUK PV P1415 3 Pleurodus rankinii Pleuroplax rankinei Helodontidae Pennsylvanian Tooth plate with crenulated edges, bilaterally symmetric USNM V3518 12 Helodus coxanus Helodus coxanus Cochliodontiformes? Mississippian Tooth file, crowns triangular, (early Viséan) mesiodistally compressed, bases fused, bilaterally symmetric ALMNH PV 9 Arcuodus Arcuodus Cochliodontiformes Mississippian Tooth plate with sharp median 2016.0002.0002 multicuspidatus multicuspidatus (late Serpukhovian) ridge, sharp cusps, bilaterally symmetric or nearly so USNM V13017 6 Deltodopsis? bialveatus Arcuodus bialveatus Cochliodontiformes Mississippian Tooth plate with low, irregular (late Tournasian) bulges, not bilaterally symmetric AMNH FF6450 7 Deltodopsis? bialveatus Arcuodus bialveatus Cochliodontiformes Mississippian Tooth plate with low, wide, (early Viséan) transverse ridges, not bilaterally symmetric USNM V13015 10 Deltodopsis? convexus Arcuodus bialveatus Cochliodontiformes Mississippian Tooth plate with very low (late Tournasian) surface undulations, bilaterally symmetric or nearly so Itano and Lambert Zoological Letters (2018) 4:12 Page 10 of 10 Abbreviations 8. Pradel A, Tafforeau P, Maisey JG, Janvier P. A new Paleozoic Symmoriiformes ALMNH: Alabama Museum of Natural History, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA; (Chondrichthyes) from the Late Carboniferous of Kansas (USA) and cladistic AMNH: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA; analysis of early chondrichthyans. PLoS One. 2011;6:e24938. NHMUK: Natural History Museum, London, UK; USNM: National Museum of 9. Coates MI, Gess RW, Finarelli JA, Criswell KE, Tietjen K. A symmoriiform Natural History, Washington, DC, USA chondrichthyan braincase and the origin of chimaeroid fishes. Nature. 2017; 541:208–11. Acknowledgments 10. Itano WM, Lambert LL. A new holocephalan tooth plate from the Bangor We thank Larry White for finding the holotype of A. multicuspidatus and for Limestone (Mississippian, Chesterian) of northern Alabama. In: Geological collecting the matrix for conodont sampling, Dana Ehret and Mary Beth Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts; 2016. Prondzinski for repositing the specimen at the University of Alabama 11. Ciampaglio C, Deuter LH, Taylor MA, Cicimurri DJ. A review of the Museum, Chris Duffin, Michał Ginter, Oleg Lebedev, Gilles Cuny, Michael chondrichthyans from the Mississippi system of northern Alabama, USA. Bull Hansen, and Tim Smithson for their help in identification of the specimen, Ala Mus Nat Hist. 2012;28:67–80. Amanda Millhouse and Michael Brett-Surman (USNM) for photographs of 12. Patterson C. Menaspis and the bradyodonts. In: Ørvig T, editor. Current problems of specimens, Martha Richter (NHMUK) and John Maisey and Alana Gishlick lower vertebrate phylogeny. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell; 1968. p. 171–205. (AMNH) for access to specimens, and Janet Vote, Jessica Rossler, and Jeffrey 13. Stahl BJ, Hansen MC. Dentition of Deltodus angularis (Holocephali, Hardwick for assistance with conodont processing and picking. We thank the Cochliodontidae) inferred from associated tooth plates. Copeia. 2000;2000:1090–6. Associate Editor and two anonymous reviewers for their comments, which 14. Lund R. Harpagofututor volsellorhinus new genus and species resulted in greatly improving the manuscript, particularly in regard to the (Chondrichthyes, Chondrenchelyiformes) from the Namurian Bear Gulch discussion of the origin of tooth plates from tooth files. Limestone, Chondrenchelys problematica Traquair (Viséan), and their sexual dimorphism. J Paleontol. 1982;56:938–58. Availability of data and materials 15. Gradstein FM, Ogg JG, Schmitz MD, Ogg GM. The geologic time scale 2012. All specimens and locality data are reposited at the institutions listed. All Vol. 2. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2012. other data are in the text and figures of the article. 16. Finarelli JA, Coates MI. First tooth-set outside the jaws in a vertebrate. Proc R Soc B. 2012;279:775–9. Authors’ contributions 17. Finarelli JA, Coates MI. 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Published: Jun 6, 2018