In urban trafﬁc, a bus’ running speed is greatly inﬂuenced by the time-dependent road conditions. Based on historical GPS data, this paper formulates a bus’ running speed between each pair of adjacent stops as a step function. A minimum-cost timetabling model is proposed, in which the total operation cost consists of the cost for a ﬁxed setup and that for variable fuel consumption. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm with self-crossover operation is used to optimize the proposed integer nonlinear programming model. Finally, a real-world case study of Yuntong 128 bus line in Beijing is presented. Comparisons among popular timetabling models are given, involving time-dependent running speed, minimum running speed, maximum running speed and average running speed. The results demonstrate that the consideration of time-dependent running speed is helpful to improve the prediction accuracy of the fuel consumption cost by around 12.7%. Keywords Bus timetabling · Time-dependent speed · Fuel consumption · Genetic algorithm 1 Introduction the proportion of fuel consumption cost is about 30–40%. Yet, the fuel consumption cost of a bus trip is closely related to With the rapid development of rail transit, customized buses the time-dependent road conditions. Indeed, different depar- and sharing bikes, the passenger volume of
Soft Computing – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 4, 2018
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