Boys’ use of muscle building techniques during early adolescence is poorly understood. The present study investigated the impact of gender role intensification, investment in muscular media images, appearance social comparison, and attitudes concerning muscularity on the use of muscle building techniques. Middle school boys (N = 143; M age = 12.92 years) from the Midwestern United States completed questionnaires. They were re-assessed 7 months later. Structural equation modeling indicated that gender role intensification as well as Time 1 media investment, and social comparison predicted Time 2 media investment in the muscular ideal which was in turn correlated with Time 2 muscle building. Implications for prevention of body image problems and muscle building among boys are discussed.
Sex Roles – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 30, 2010
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