A genome for gnetophytes and early evolution of seed plants

A genome for gnetophytes and early evolution of seed plants Gnetophytes are an enigmatic gymnosperm lineage comprising three genera, Gnetum, Welwitschia and Ephedra, which are morphologically distinct from all other seed plants. Their distinctiveness has triggered much debate as to their origin, evolution and phylogenetic placement among seed plants. To increase our understanding of the evolution of gnetophytes, and their relation to other seed plants, we report here a high-quality draft genome sequence for Gnetum montanum, the first for any gnetophyte. By using a novel genome assembly strategy to deal with high levels of heterozygosity, we assembled >4 Gb of sequence encoding 27,491 protein-coding genes. Comparative analysis of the G. montanum genome with other gymnosperm genomes unveiled some remarkable and distinctive genomic features, such as a diverse assemblage of retrotransposons with evidence for elevated frequencies of elimination rather than accumulation, considerable differences in intron architecture, including both length distribution and proportions of (retro) transposon elements, and distinctive patterns of proliferation of functional protein domains. Furthermore, a few gene families showed Gnetum-specific copy number expansions (for example, cellulose synthase) or contractions (for example, Late Embryogenesis Abundant protein), which could be connected with Gnetum’s distinctive morphological innovations associated with their adaptation to warm, mesic environments. Overall, the G. montanum genome enables a better resolution of ancestral genomic features within seed plants, and the identification of genomic characters that distinguish Gnetum from other gymnosperms. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Nature Plants Springer Journals
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Publisher
Nature Publishing Group UK
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by The Author(s)
Subject
Life Sciences; Life Sciences, general; Plant Sciences
eISSN
2055-0278
D.O.I.
10.1038/s41477-017-0097-2
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Gnetophytes are an enigmatic gymnosperm lineage comprising three genera, Gnetum, Welwitschia and Ephedra, which are morphologically distinct from all other seed plants. Their distinctiveness has triggered much debate as to their origin, evolution and phylogenetic placement among seed plants. To increase our understanding of the evolution of gnetophytes, and their relation to other seed plants, we report here a high-quality draft genome sequence for Gnetum montanum, the first for any gnetophyte. By using a novel genome assembly strategy to deal with high levels of heterozygosity, we assembled >4 Gb of sequence encoding 27,491 protein-coding genes. Comparative analysis of the G. montanum genome with other gymnosperm genomes unveiled some remarkable and distinctive genomic features, such as a diverse assemblage of retrotransposons with evidence for elevated frequencies of elimination rather than accumulation, considerable differences in intron architecture, including both length distribution and proportions of (retro) transposon elements, and distinctive patterns of proliferation of functional protein domains. Furthermore, a few gene families showed Gnetum-specific copy number expansions (for example, cellulose synthase) or contractions (for example, Late Embryogenesis Abundant protein), which could be connected with Gnetum’s distinctive morphological innovations associated with their adaptation to warm, mesic environments. Overall, the G. montanum genome enables a better resolution of ancestral genomic features within seed plants, and the identification of genomic characters that distinguish Gnetum from other gymnosperms.

Journal

Nature PlantsSpringer Journals

Published: Jan 29, 2018

References

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