The syncytium is a nurse cell formed within the roots of Glycine max by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Its development and maintenance are essential for nematode survival. The syncytium appears to undergo two developmental phases during its maturation into a functional nurse cell. The first phase is a parasitism phase where the nematode establishes the molecular circuitry that during the second phase ensures a compatible interaction with the plant cell. The cytological features of syncytia undergoing susceptible or resistant reactions appear the same during the parasitism phase. Depending on the outcome of any defense response, the second phase is a period of syncytium maintenance (susceptible reaction) or failure (resistant reaction). In the analyses presented here, the localized gene expression occurring at the syncytium during the resistant reaction was studied. This was accomplished by isolating syncytial cells from Glycine max genotype Peking (PI 548402) by laser capture microdissection. Microarray analyses using the Affymetrix® soybean GeneChip® directly compared Peking syncytia undergoing a resistant reaction to those undergoing a susceptible reaction during the parasitism phase of the resistant reaction. Those analyses revealed lipoxygenase-9 and lipoxygenase-4 as the most highly induced genes in the resistant reaction. The analysis also identified induced levels of components of the phenylpropanoid pathway. These genes included phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone isomerase, isoflavone reductase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase. The presence of induced levels of these genes implies the importance of jasmonic acid and phenylpropanoid signaling pathways locally at the site of the syncytium during the resistance phase of the resistant reaction. The analysis also identified highly induced levels of four S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes, the EARLY-RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 2 gene and the 14-3-3 gene known as GENERAL REGULATORY FACTOR 2. Subsequent analyses studied microdissected syncytial cells at 3, 6 and 9 days post infection (dpi) during the course of the resistant reaction, resulting in the identification of signature gene expression profiles at each time point in a single G. max genotype, Peking.
Plant Molecular Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 29, 2009
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