Psychiatric Quarterly [psaq] ph259-psaq-482366 June 3, 2004 10:30 Style ﬁle version June 4th, 2002
Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 3, Fall 2004 (
A CULTURE OF ENQUIRY: RESEARCH
EVIDENCE AND THE THERAPEUTIC
Jan Lees, Nick Manning, Ph.D.,
and Barbara Rawlings, Ph.D.
This paper presents data from a systematic review and meta-analysis of 29 pub-
lished studies of therapeutic community effectiveness using controls, including
8 randomised control trials. Meta-regressions suggest that the two types of ther-
apeutic community, democratic and concept-based, and the age of the study, are
the key sources of heterogeneity in the collection of studies analysed. Other-
wise, heterogeneity is low and the meta-analysis conﬁrms the effectiveness of
therapeutic community treatment with overall summary log odds ratio for the
29 studies of −0.512 (95% ci −0.598 to −0.426).
KEY WORDS: systematic review; meta-analysis; therapeutic communities; effective-
Jan Lees is Research Associate, Francis Dixon Lodge, Leicester, United Kingdom.
Nick Manning is a Professor of Social Policy and Sociology, University of Nottingham,
Barbara Rawlings is Honorary Research Fellow, Department of Sociology, University
of Manchester, United Kingdom.
Address correspondence to Jan Lees, School of Sociology and Social Policy, University
of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.
2004 Human Sciences Press, Inc.