Migraine is the most frequent neurological disorder observed in clinical practice characterized by moderate to severe pain attacks associated with neurological, gastrointestinal, and dysautonomic symptoms. Each year, 2.5% of patients with episodic migraine develop chronic migraine (CM). CM is characterized by high frequency of the attacks that may result into chronic intake of abortive medications. Nearly, the 70% of CM patients referring to tertiary head centers show acute pain medications overuse that may lead to the development of medication overuse headache (MOH). The management of MOH requires three steps: (1) education, (2) withdrawal of the overuse drug and detoxification, and (3) re-prophylaxis. In the last years, several real-life prospective studies provided further evidence in clinical setting of the onabotulinumtoxinA 155–195 U efficacy for the headache prophylaxis in CM with MOH patients. There is a general agreement on two factors: (1) withdrawal of the overuse drug is condicio sine qua non to reverse the pattern to medium–low-frequency migraine, and (2) the focus of management needs to shift from acute treatment of pain to prevention of headache. CM patients close to developing MOH, patients with high-frequency episodic migraine, and those already abusing of drugs require special attention and should refer to tertiary headache centers. For all of them, a solution could be an “early treatment.” Early should be their referral to a tertiary headache center, early should be the withdrawal of the overuse drug and a proper detoxification, and perhaps early should be the start of a preventative therapy.
Current Treatment Options in Neurology – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 15, 2017
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