Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment [saj] pp916-sebu-469145 July 16, 2003 13:53 Style ﬁle version Nov 28th, 2002
Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, Vol. 15, No. 4, October 2003 (
A Comparison of Anxiety and Depression in Sex
Offenders With Intellectual Disability and a Control
Group With Intellectual Disability
William R. Lindsay
and Melanie S. Lees
The aims of this study wereto employ modiﬁed versions of the 21-item Beck Anxiety
and Depression Inventories with a group of 16 sex offenders with mild intellectual
disability and borderline intelligence and 16 control participants with similar lev-
els of intellectual disability. Test-retest correlations found high reliability for both
assessments across all participants. There was a signiﬁcant difference between the
scores of the 2 groups with the sex offenders reporting signiﬁcantly lower levels
of anxiety and depression than the control participants. The results are discussed
by presenting hypotheses on the emotional stability in each group.
KEY WORDS: intellectual disability; anxiety; depression; sex offenders.
In the past decade there has been a general acceptance that people with intel-
lectual disabilities can experience psychological disorders leading to the concept
of “dual diagnosis.” Lund (1985) in a comprehensive review of 302 adults assessed
as having intellectual disability found that 27% were classiﬁed with a diagnosable
psychiatric disorder, 1.7% being diagnosed with affective disorder, 2% with neu-
rosis, and 10.9% with behavioral disorders. Borthwick-Duffy (1994) also noted
that people with intellectual disabilities have an incidence of psychiatric disorders
at least as great as the general population. Thompson-Prout and Schaefer (1985)
reporting an assessment of self-reported depression in a community-based sample
Tayside Primary Care NHS Trust, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom.
Clinical Psychology Department, University of Abertay – Dundee Scotland, United Kingdom.
To whom correspondence should be addressed at Clinical Psychology Department, Wedderburn
House, 1 Edward Street, Dundee DD1 5NS, Scotland, United Kingdom; e-mail: bill.lindsay@
2003 Plenum Publishing Corporation