SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTS
A CLASSIFICATION OF REFRACTORIES: PROPERTIES
V. A. Perepelitsyn
and E. E. Grishenkov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 6, June, 2004, pp. 25 – 27.
Original article submitted May 12, 2004.
A mineralogical petrographic classification of the properties of refractory materials is proposed. By conven
tion, three major groups — phase-sensitive, structure-sensitive, and specific-sensitive — are considered. In
terms of this classificatory system, three routes towards improving actual and developing new advanced re
fractory materials are suggested: a phase-oriented (mineralogical) route, a structure-oriented route, and a com
By convention, refractory materials for use in advanced
technologies are divided into three major groups: coarse ce-
ramics, unfired organomineral composites, and fusion-cast
materials. As a rule, all these materials display a complex
polymineral, phase composition (frequently shifted from a
state of equilibrium), a heterogeneous structure (on a macro
and microscale), and a nonuniform pore structure. The com-
plex phase and structural constitution of refractory materials
is reflected in a wide range of their physicochemical proper
ties and resistance.
The constitution of a refractory is understood to mean a
close relation between its chemical and mineral composition
and structure (in the broad sense of the term).
Any technology for production of inorganic and compos
ite materials involves a synthesis of minerals (products) with
specified physicochemical and microstructural properties to
meet stringent requirements placed on their performance un
der various operating conditions.
A major target of the theoretical and applied refractory
materials science is to gain insight into the relationship be
tween functional properties of materials and their mineral
(phase) composition and structural macro- and microscopic
features. Our many-years experience in the study of in-ser
vice and post-service of refractory materials has shown that
the mineral composition and structure produce effects of
varying degree on many properties (one would mention more
than 50) of these materials. Remarkably, some properties of
refractory material are affected but slightly (if at all) by
macro- or microstructural features. By contrast, other proper-
ties are quite sensitive to even very slight microstructural
changes. Finely, there are properties that respond, in some or
other way, to changes in both mineral composition and struc-
ture [1, 2].
Based on a correlational systems analysis and the avail
able literature data [3, 5], the physicochemical properties of
polycrystalline, multicomponent, and heteroporous refracto
ries have by convention been divided into three large groups:
(i) phase-sensitive, (ii) structure-sensitive, and (iii) specific-
sensitive (see Table 1).
The first group includes mainly crystalline, thermody
namic, chemical, and physical properties which are virtually
independent of the crystal size and pore structure, that is,
may be regarded as constants. These, for example, may be
the true density, crystalline melting point, incipient softening
temperature of glasses, thermal expansion coefficient, melt
ing mode (congruent or incongruent), etc. Furthermore, the
phase-sensitive properties are diagnostic ones that allow ana
lytical identification of a particular refractory component.
The relative wear resistance of in-service refractory materials
can be predicted using the concept of energy density and
thermal energy density that have been proposed in .
Structure-sensitive properties are primarily associated
with the pore structure, that is, the size and morphology of
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 45, No. 5, 2004
1083-4877/04/4505-0324 © 2004 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.
VOSTIO Joint-Stock Co., Ekaterinburg, Russia
Intermet Engineering Research and Production Enterprise, Mos