ISSN 10214437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2013, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 404–410. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © E.A. Naumenko, G.V. Sibgatullina, A.R. Mukhitov, A.A. Rodionov, O.N. Il’inskaya, R.P. Naumova, 2013, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2013, Vol. 60, No.
3, pp. 416–423.
2,4,6Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a widespread com
ponent of explosives. Its toxic and mutagenic potential
was revealed using test organisms of different evolu
tionary levels, from bacteria to mammals [1, 2]. The
US Environmental Protection Agency attributed TNT
to dangerous biosphere pollutants .
Literature data confirm participation of plants in
chemical transformation and degradation of numer
ous stable and ecologically dangerous compounds.
Therefore, weeds and cultivated plants are widely used
for the removal of organic pollutants and toxic metals
from industrial sewage and for phytoremediation of
contaminated territories . The ability of plants to
break down numerous toxicants, along with cheapness
and simplicity of the methods of phytoremediation,
open up new prospects in ecological biotechnology
based on the detoxifying potential of plants and asso
Researchers dealing with degradation of TNT in
plants usually consider its transformation along the
nitroreduction pathway with the formation of 2
amino4,6dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) and 4amino
2,6dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) as major metabolites
. In some plants (parrot feather and Tangutic rhu
barb) the products of further TNT reduction (diami
nonitrotoluene isomers, DANT) were identified .
Phytotransformation of TNT involves binding of TNT
derivatives to cell components, namely to C6 com
pounds, which results in the production of corre
sponding glucosides by glucosyltransferases [7, 8]. On
the physiological level, toxic effects of TNT account
for considerable retardation of seedling development
and for deceleration of secondary growth of shoots and
roots . On the cellular level, TNT is able to induce
additional contacts between membrane structures of
plant cell as well as cell destruction . However, the
mechanisms of TNT phytotoxicity and resistance of
certain plant species to TNT action are currently
poorly understood. As shown earlier in experiments
with bacteria, transformations of TNT are associated
with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
This process is initiated by oneelectron reduction of
TNT, leading to formation of toxic nitro radical
anions in a reaction catalyzed by oxygensensitive
nitroreductase [11, 12]. The negative effect of ROS on
cells of living organisms is also well known . One
can assume that the toxic effect of TNT is mediated by
oxidative stress. Presently, the possibility of ROS pro
duction in plant cells exposed to TNT remains unex
plored. It is important to find out if oxidative stress
develops during TNT transformation in plant cells and
to determine the extent of its lethality.
2,4,6Trinitrotoluene as a Trigger of Oxidative Stress
E. A. Naumenko
, G. V. Sibgatullina
, A. R. Mukhitov
, A. A. Rodionov
O. N. Il’inskaya
, and R. P. Naumova
Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, ul. Kremlevskaya 18, Kazan, Tatarstan, 420008 Russia;
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Kazan Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Kazan, Tatarstan, 420008 Russia
Received June 1, 2012
—Effect of 2,4,6trinitrotoluene (TNT) on callus cells of Tartar buckwheat (
(L.) Gaertn.) was accompanied by sixelectron reduction of ortho or paranitro groups of the xenobiotic
with the production of 2amino4,6dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) and 4amino2,6dinitrotoluene (4ADNT).
It was discovered that the xenobiotic TNT impairs integrity of cell membrane, which apparently results from
its oneelectron reduction coupled with production of nitro radicalanion and superoxide anion.
Keywords: Fagopyrum tataricum
, callus, 2,4,6trinitrotoluene, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress
: 2ADNT—2amino4,6dinitrotoluene; 4
toluenes; DAPI—4,6diamidino2phenylindole dihydrochlo
ride; HADNT—hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes; PI—propidium
iodide; Tiron—sodium 4,5dihydroxybenzene1,3disulfonate;