MyoD is an important myogenic transcription factor necessary for the differentiation of myogenic precursor cells (MPC) to form mature myotubes, a process essential for muscle growth. Epigenetic markers such as CpH methylation are known gene regulators that are important for the differentiation process. In this study, we investigated whether DNA methylation is a potential mechanism associated with the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to reduce MyoD gene expression and muscle growth in rainbow trout. Rainbow trout received a single intraperitoneal injection of E2 or the injection vehicle (control). Skeletal muscle was collected 24 h post injection and analyzed for DNA methylation within the MyoD gene and the expression of DNA methyltransferases. CpG islands of the MyoD gene were predicted using MethPrimer software, and these regions were PCR amplified and analyzed using bisulfite sequencing. The percent methylation of the targeted CpG did not differ between control and E2-treated fish. However, percent CpH methylation in the MyoD exon 1 region was elevated with E2 treatment. Two of the methylated CpH sites were located in conserved transcription factor binding motifs, estrogen response element (ERE), and Myc binding site. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in expression of DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, in E2-treated muscle, suggesting an increased genome methylation. Differential CpH methylation in MyoD gene of control and E2-treated fish suggests an epigenetic mechanism through which E2 decreases MyoD gene expression and contributes to reduced muscle growth.
Marine Biotechnology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 3, 2017
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