In addition to their regulation of cytoplasmic enzymes, the 14-3-3 proteins are important regulators of membrane localised proteins. In particular, many of the cells' ion pumps and channels are either directly or indirectly modulated by 14-3-3 proteins. Binding of 14-3-3 can lead to the activation of pump activity as in the case of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase or inhibition as in the case of the F-type ATP synthase complexes. 14-3-3 binding can also lead to surprising results such as the recruitment of `sleepy' outward rectifiying K+ channels in tomato cells. Our present knowledge extends to an initial understanding of isoform-specific binding of 14-3-3 to certain membrane proteins and a perception of the protein kinases and phosphatases that maintain the regulatory process in a state of flux.
Plant Molecular Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 13, 2004
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