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Trade survey of medicinal plants in Germany: A contribution to international plant species conservation



ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOL. 52 Grant, H. J. 1919. Beginning of the Sugar Industry in Utah. Official Report of the Eighty-ninth Annual Conference of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. June 1, 1919. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Salt Lake City, UT. Harris, F. S. 1926. The Sugar-Beet in America. The Macmillan Co, New York. Miner, E. L. et al. 1982. History of Elisha Peck, Jr. and Elizabeth Jane Wilson. Remington Press Inc, USA. Monson, C. T. 1995. Mulberry Trees: The Basis and Remnant of the Utah Silk Industry. Economic Botany 50:130-137. Smoot, B. R. 1935. Romance of the Sugar Beet. Address given at Salt Lake City Rotary club luncheon Dec. 17 1935, Hotel Utah. B. R. Smoot collection, Brigham Young University Library. Taylor, F. G. 1944. A Saga of Sugar. Being a Story of Romance and Development of Beet Sugar in the Rocky Mountain West. Deseret News Press, Salt Lake City, UT. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1898. Special Report on the Beet Sugar Industry in the United States. G.EO. Washington D.C. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1987. Agricultural Census. G.P.O. Washington D.C. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1991. December. Sugar and Sweetener Situation Outlook and Report. G.P.O. Washington D.C. Utah-ldaho Sugar Co. 1944. The Silver Wedge, The Sugar Beet in the United States. United States Beet Sugar Association, Washington D.C. Van Wagoner, R. S. 1991. The Lehi Sugar Factory-100 Years in Retrospect. Utah Historical Quarterly 59:189-204. BOOK REVIEW Trade Survey of Medicinal Plants in Germany: A Contribution to International Plant Species Conservation. Dagmar Lange and Uwe Schippmann. 1997. Bundesamt ftir Naturschutz (German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation), Konstantinstral]e 110, D-53179 Bonn, Germany. 128 pp. +xvi (paperback). DM 19.80. ISBN 3-89624607-0. Trade in plant-based medicines, cosmetics and foodadditives is growing at an unprecedented rate as naturopathic remedies, nutraceuticals and other herbal products become part of the life-style of an increasing number of consumers in industrialized countries. While such practices have economic and health implications, they can also have important impacts on the conservation of plant populations in source countries, particularly for the large proportion of species (7090%) that are harvested from the wild. This survey had the original aim of identifying medicinal plants being imported into Germany and used there, their origin and their trading routes to and within Germany, and the threats they face in their countries of provenance. The observation that at least 50% of medicines utilized in Germany are based on plants helps explains why on a global scale Germany is third only to Hong Kong and Japan as an importer of mcdicinal plants. The value of medicinal plants sold in Germany greatly exceeds that in the USA and the value of herbal imports is correspondingly more. Nonetheless, with rates of growth for herbal products in North American markets currently greater than Western Europe, Germany provides a useful case study of the conservation implications of market trends in the USA and elsewhere. Moreover, a significant portion of the German re-export trade, primarily in processed products, is to the USA. While this volume contains numerous insights it is not a comprehensive analysis of the central issues. The survey was based on evaluations of technical literature as well as interviews and publications provided by government authorities, drug traders, pharmaceutical companies and pharmacists. Limitations inherent in this approach prevented the authors from being successful in achieving all of their objectives. While the range of plants being imported are identified and the market is defined in general terms, the nature of legal regulations on trade and differences in priorities of people in commerce from those conducting surveys made it difficult to obtain exact import data on other than a few of the 1543 medicinal plant species being imported into Germany. In particular, few insights related to the conservation of plants in their source countries were possible. Contributing factors are that the primary sources of shipments re-exported from European or other countries are often not disclosed, or that the pharmaceutical names of drugs in trade do not correspond to the Latin binomials by which plants are protected under CITES or national legislation. The primary value of this report is for the data it contains on volumes and values of German imports and exports of various species from and to various parts of the world. As well it contains useful summaries of trade regulations and conservation status related to botanical drug species. For those with a special interest in global plant conservation, these extensive compilations makes it well worth the modest purchase price. TIMOTHY JOHNS SCHOOL OF DIETETICS AND HUMAN NUTRITION MACDONALDCAMPUS, McGILL UNIVERSITY STE. ANNE DE BELLEVUE,QC H9X 3V9 CANADA



Economic BotanySpringer Journals

Published: Apr 1, 1998

DOI: 10.1007/BF02861212

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