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Adv. Manuf. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40436-019-00249-2 Three-dimensional numerical simulation of soft/hard composite-coated textured tools in dry turning of AISI 1045 steel 1 1 1 1 1 • • • • Yun-Song Lian Chen-Liang Mu Ming Liu Hui-Feng Chen Bin Yao Received: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 The Author(s) 2019 Abstract A structural model of a soft/hard composite- environmental pollution risks [3, 4]. Therefore, green coated textured (SHCCT) tool was proposed and substan- processing technology (without cutting ﬂuids) is a sus- tiated by a three-dimensional numerical simulation. Its dry tainable development trend, which has become increas- turning performance as applied to AISI-1045 steel was ingly topical [5, 6]. However, dry cutting exposes the tool analyzed via three-factor ﬁve-level orthogonal experiments to more heavy-duty conditions because of the inevitably for different coating parameters, including coating thick- increased cutting forces, cutting temperatures, and tool ness, coating material, and thickness ratio of the soft and wear . Hence, the development of innovative dry cutting hard coatings. In addition, the cutting performance of the tools is a research hotspot, which covers two primary types proposed SHCCT tool was compared with those of of tools including micro-textured tools [8, 9], and coated uncoated non-textured, coated non-textured, and uncoated tools [10, 11]. textured tools, and its superiority was proved by the sig- Xie et al.  performed an experimental study on niﬁcant reductions in the cutting force, and speciﬁcally, the cutting temperatures and cutting forces in the dry turning of cutting temperature. The optimal results were provided by a titanium alloy using a non-coated micro-grooved tool. the SHCCT tool with a WS /ZrN soft/hard composite They reported that micro-grooves patterned on the tool coating, a 0.9:0.1 thickness ratio of the above ingredients, rake surface contributed to the reduction of cutting chip and a total coating thickness of 0.5 lm. friction and heat. Ku¨mmel et al.  investigated the microtexturing of uncoated cemented carbide cutting tools Keywords Dry cutting performance Soft/hard for wear improvement and built-up edge stabilization. They composite-coated textured (SHCCT) tool Finite element reported that the adhesion of workpiece material to the rake analysis Coating parameters Cemented carbide face could be modiﬁed by applying speciﬁc textures pro- duced by laser texturing. Deng et al.  reported an experiment where MoS /Zr composite coating was depos- 1 Introduction ited on the surface of YT15-cemented carbide and a dry cutting test was conducted on hardened steel. The results Cutting ﬂuids are vital during the conventional cutting indicated that, in the case of low-speed cutting, MoS /Zr- process for the lubrication and cooling of tools and work- coated tools exhibited superior cutting performance as pieces [1, 2]. However, the cutting ﬂuid application compared to the uncoated ones. The coatings on the rake increases not only the processing costs but also the face acted as lubricating additives between the tool-chip sliding couple during the cutting process and contributed to the tool wear reduction. In the high-speed cutting process, & Yun-Song Lian there were numerous cracks in the coating because of the email@example.com elevated cutting temperature, which initiated coating delamination from the tool face and accelerated the tool Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, wear. Aslantas et al.  reported the wear behavior of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian, People’s TiN-coated and uncoated ceramic Al O -TiCN mixed Republic of China 2 3 123 Y.-S. Lian et al. inserts on the dry machining of hardened AISI 52100 steel (with a hardness of 63HRC). The results indicated that the Soft coating dominant wear type for both the coated and uncoated Tool cutting tools was crater wear. In addition, TiN coating Chip Hard coating signiﬁcantly increased the wear resistance of ceramic tools Texture but rendered them more inclined to the formation of built- up edges. Workpiece According to the available results from previous studies, surface textures can reduce cutting forces [16, 17], soft Fig. 1 Cutting schematic of SHCCT tool coatings can signiﬁcantly reduce the friction coefﬁcient , while hard layers render the tool more wear-resistant used in the oblique cutting process, it can be reduced to . In this study, therefore, a fusion of micro-textured and orthogonal cutting. A simpliﬁed model of orthogonal cut- coating technologies into a new green cutting tool tech- ting is shown in Fig. 2. nique is proposed. However, it is necessary to have a The cutting ﬂow direction in this approximately theoretical basis for the preparation of a soft/hard com- orthogonal cutting coincides with the direction of cutting posite-coated textured (SHCCT) tool, which should also force resistance. When the cutting resistance of the reduce the actual experimental workload. Numerous orthogonal cutting is decomposed into an axial force F , scholars have simulated cutting performance using ﬁnite radial force F , and main cutting force F , these compo- y z element analysis. Arulkirubakaran et al.  performed a nents can be respectively expressed as  numerical simulation, using the deform 3D software, of the sin c machining of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface-textured F ¼a l s cos c cosðw þ w Þ; ð1Þ x w f c o r k tools. Kim et al.  conducted the ﬁnite element modeling tan b of hard turning bearing steel (AISI 52100) via micro-tex- sin c tured tools. F ¼a l s cos c sinðw þ w Þ; ð2Þ y w f c o r k tan b In this study, a combination of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation is used for the substantiation of the cos c F ¼a l s sin c ; ð3Þ z w f c feasibility of different soft/hard composite coatings tan b deposited on the surface of the textured tool during dry where l is the tool-chip contact length, a the cutting f w cutting, as well as the optimization of their parameters. width, s the average shear stress on the tool rake face, c c o the rake angle, b the friction angle, w the approach angle, and w the chip ﬂow angle. 2 Experimental 2.1 Design ideas of SHCCT tool In this study, the concept of a tool combining soft/hard composite coatings and textures is proposed. Firstly, orderly arranged micro-grooves of speciﬁc shape and size were produced on the rake face of the tool using surface- processing technology. Hard and soft coatings were then deposited on the rake face of the tool, sequentially, using surface coating deposition technology. These measures were aimed at producing a cutting tool with low friction, high wear resistance, and extended service life of its sub- strate. The cutting schematic of the SHCCT tool is shown in Fig. 1. 2.2 Theoretical substantiation of expected reduction in cutting force and cutting temperature In actual machining, oblique cutting is the commonest. Based on the straight feed direction and the applied com- binations of cutting depth, feed rate, and tool edge radius Fig. 2 Simpliﬁed model of oblique cutting 123 Three-dimensional numerical simulation of soft/hard composite-coated textured tools in dry… From Eqs. (1)–(3), it follows that the three cutting force tool. A more detailed analysis of Eq. (4) can be found in components are proportional to the tool-chip contact length Ref. . l and the average shear stress on the tool rake face s . f c In the cutting process, the primary heat generation 2.3 Effects of texture on cutting forces and cutting contributions are the chip deformation work and the fric- temperature tion work on the rake face and ﬂank face. The latter increases the temperature in the tool-chip zone, which is The proﬁle of a textured tool during cutting is shown in referred to as the cutting temperature. The cutting heat Fig. 4. In the tool-chip zone, the actual contact distance distribution in dry cutting is shown in Fig. 3. It is typically between the chip and the tool rake face is reduced because of the texture. As can be seen in Eqs. (1)–(3), the cutting assumed that the cutting temperature h can be derived as a force components are proportional to the tool-chip contact superposition of the shear surface temperature h and the length. Equation (4) implies that the cutting temperature is tool-chip contact surface temperature h , according to Ref. positively correlated to the square root of the tool-chip  contact length. Therefore, we can conclude that the pres- sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ence of textures can effectively reduce the cutting forces R v s vl 1 s s f h ¼ h þ h ¼ þ h þ 0:754R s ; t s f 0 2 c and the cutting temperature. c q v sin / nc q k 1 1 2 2 2 ð4Þ 2.4 Effect of soft/hard composite coating on cutting forces and cutting temperature where h is the cutting temperature at the tool-chip inter- face on the rake face of the cutting tool, h the shear surface A soft/hard composite coating is fabricated by hard coating temperature, h the tool-chip contact surface temperature, deposition over the substrate, with further depositing of a h the ambient temperature, R the ratio of the heat gen- 0 1 soft coating layer. Insofar as the external soft coating is erated at the shear plane and transferred into the chip, R directly in contact with cutting workpieces, it plays a sig- the ratio of the heat generated at the rake face and trans- niﬁcant role in the reduction of cutting forces and tem- ferred into the chip, v the cutting speed, v the shear speed, peratures. The shear strength of a soft coating is s the shear strength of the workpiece material, c the s 1 signiﬁcantly lower than that of common tool materials, speciﬁc heat capacity of workpiece material at the average which makes a substantial reduction of the average shear temperature of h h , c the speciﬁc heat capacity of chip 0 s 2 stresses on the rake face feasible. As follows from at the temperature of ðh þ h Þ, q the density of workpiece s f Eqs. (1)–(3), the cutting force components are directly material, q the density of chip at the temperature of proportional to the average shear stress on the tool rake ðh þ h Þ, k the thermal conductivity of chip at the tem- s f 2 face. In addition, as seen in Eq. (4), the cutting temperature perature of ðh þ h Þ, n the chip deformation coefﬁcient, s f is positively correlated to the average shear stress on the and / the shear angle. tool rake face. Therefore, the soft coating application can It is noteworthy that the cutting temperature is positively reduce the cutting force components and the cutting correlated to the square root of the tool-chip contact length pﬃﬃﬃ temperature. l and the average shear stress s on the rake face of the f c 2.5 Orthogonal experiments design Tungsten disulﬁde (WS ) and molybdenum disulﬁde (MoS ) ﬁnd an increasingly broad use as soft coatings. They both have a hexagonal crystal layered structure, a low friction coefﬁcient, and produce interface ﬁlms in the process of friction. Therefore, WS and MoS soft coatings 2 2 were used for the SHCCT tool preparation in this study. The hard coating in the soft/hard composite coating is primarily used to improve the hardness and wear resistance of the tool substrate. Hard coatings such as TiN, ZrN, and TiAlN have high hardness, excellent wear resistance, and high-temperature resistance. Therefore, these three mate- rials were used for the preparation of the hard coatings in this study. The physical and thermal properties of the coating materials are presented in Table 1. Fig. 3 Cutting heat distribution in dry cutting 123 Y.-S. Lian et al. Fig. 4 Proﬁle of a textured tool during cutting Table 1 Physical and thermal properties of coating materials Coating Elastic modulus/ Density/ Thermal expansion coefﬁcient/ Poisson’s Thermal conductivity/ Hardness/ -3 -6 -1 -1 GPa (kgm ) (10 K ) ratio (W(mK) ) GPa WS 354 7 500 6.35 0.280 32 – MoS 330 5 060 10.70 0.125 37 – TiN 600 5 220 9.40 0.250 25 28 ZrN 510 7 320 7.20 0.160 16.73 28–32 TiAlN 440 5 220 9.20 0.230 15 28 Numerous researchers have reported that a combination coated tools without texturing (group 28). The orthogonal of certain soft and hard coatings could signiﬁcantly experimental scheme is summarized in Table 3. improve the conventional cutting performance. However, to the best of our knowledge, the combined application of 2.6 Cutting simulation soft and hard coatings to dry cutting has not yet been reported. To obtain the best combination of soft and hard The AISI-1045 steel, which is quenched and tempered #45 coatings from known materials, three-factor ﬁve-level steel, was selected as the workpiece material, and cemented (L 5 ) orthogonal experiments were designed. The three carbide was selected as the tool substrate. The physical and factors were the coating thickness, coating material, and thermal properties of the tool and the workpiece materials thickness ratio of soft and hard coatings, and the ﬁve levels are presented in Table 4. The simpliﬁed model for turning of each factor are described in detail in Table 2. As ref- is shown in Fig. 5, where the size of the textured area on erence samples, three additional experiments were con- the rake face is 1 mm 9 1 mm. The structural parameters ducted, which involved tools without texturing and coating of the texture are a diameter of 50 lm, a depth of 40 lm, (group 26), textured tools without coating (group 27), and and a spacing of 150 lm, as presented in Table 5. After repeated veriﬁcation, a suitable calculation efﬁciency and Table 2 Factors and levels of orthogonal experiments Level A (coating thickness)/lm B (coating material) C (thickness ratio of soft and hard coatings) 1 0.5 WS /TiN 0.9/0.1 2 1.0 WS /ZrN 0.7/0.3 3 1.5 WS /TiAlN 0.5/0.5 4 2.0 MoS /TiN 0.3/0.7 5 2.5 MoS /ZrN 0.1/0.9 123 Three-dimensional numerical simulation of soft/hard composite-coated textured tools in dry… Table 3 Orthogonal experiments Group A B C Scheme 1 1 1 1 A1B1C1 2 1 2 2 A1B2C2 3 1 3 3 A1B3C3 4 1 4 4 A1B4C4 5 1 5 5 A1B5C5 6 2 1 2 A2B1C2 7 2 2 3 A2B2C3 8 2 3 4 A2B3C4 9 2 4 5 A2B4C5 10 2 5 1 A2B5C1 Fig. 5 Simpliﬁed model for turning 11 3 1 3 A3B1C3 12 3 2 4 A3B2C4 3 Results and discussion 13 3 3 5 A3B3C5 14 3 4 1 A3B4C1 3.1 Cutting temperature 15 3 5 2 A3B5C2 16 4 1 4 A4B1C4 The cutting temperatures of groups 18 and 26 are shown in 17 4 2 5 A4B2C5 Figs. 7a, b, respectively, while those of four different tools 18 4 3 1 A4B3C1 are shown in Fig. 8. As can be seen in Fig. 8, under the 19 4 4 2 A4B4C2 same cutting parameters, the cutting temperature of the tool 20 4 5 3 A4B5C3 without coating and texturing was the highest, reaching 21 5 1 5 A5B1C5 428.0 C. The cutting temperature of the SHCCT tool 22 5 2 1 A5B2C1 (group 18) was the lowest, namely 62.9 C. By comparing 23 5 3 2 A5B3C2 the cutting temperature of the four types of tools, we can 24 5 4 3 A5B4C3 see that both coated and textured tools can reduce the 25 5 5 4 A5B5C4 cutting temperature, however, their combination provides a 26 Without texturing and coating – synergetic effect. 27 Textured without coating – 28 Coated without texturing A4B3C1 3.2 Main cutting force The main cutting forces of groups 2 and 26 are shown in Figs. 9a, b, respectively, while those of four different tools accuracy was obtained when the number of grids of the tool are plotted in Fig. 10. A comparative analysis of Figs. 9 and workpiece was 70 000. During the cutting process, the and 10 reveals no signiﬁcant differences in the main cutting highest stress, strain, and temperature were observed at the force values for different tools. Among them, the highest tool rake face, which contacted with the workpiece. Thus, main cutting force of 97.4 N was observed in the tool on the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the calculation, without the coating and texturing. In addition, it can be it was found expedient to reduce the calculation time by seen in Fig. 10 that the effect of coating or textures on the increasing the grid density of the tool nose. The tool and reduction of the main cutting force is not signiﬁcant. workpiece after re-meshing are shown in Fig. 6. The depth However, the main cutting force of the SHCCT tool (group of cut was set to 0.3 mm; the feed rate was 0.1 mm/r; the 2) was 79.1 N, i.e., 18.8% lower than that of tools without cutting speed was 150 m/min; and the ambient temperature the coating and texturing. This indicates that the was 20 C. Table 4 Physical and thermal properties of the tool and the workpiece material -1 -1 Material Elastic modulus/GPa Poisson’s ratio Thermal conductivity/(W(mK) ) Speciﬁc heat capacity/(J(kgK) ) AISI-1045 (workpiece) – 0.30 Change with temperature Change with temperature Cemented carbide (tool) 680 0.25 59 15 123 Y.-S. Lian et al. Table 5 Structural parameters of the texture Texture structural parameters Hole texture Texture diameter/lm50 Texture depth/lm40 Texture spacing/lm 150 Fig. 8 Cutting temperature of four different tools rake face can reduce the main cutting force, and speciﬁ- cally, the cutting temperature. The effects of coating thickness, coating material, and thickness ratio of the soft and hard coating on the cutting temperature are shown in Figs. 11a–c, respectively. As can be seen in Fig. 11a, with an increase in the coating thickness, the cutting tempera- ture increases rapidly and then stabilizes. When the coating thickness is 0.5 lm, the cutting temperature is the lowest. As can be seen in Fig. 11b, the cutting temperature of the Fig. 6 Tool and workpiece after re-meshing WS /ZrN SHCCT tool is the lowest. As can be seen in Fig. 11c, with a decrease in the thickness ratio of the soft coating, the cutting temperature gradually increases, and is approximately directly proportional to the soft coating thickness. This complies with the primary function of the soft coating to lubricate the tool-chip contact area and reduce the friction coefﬁcient, thereby reducing the gen- erated heat. Figure 11d shows the effect of three parame- ters on the cutting temperature. It can be seen that the effect of the thickness ratio of soft and hard coatings on the cutting temperature is the most obvious, followed by the coating material factor, while the coating thickness is the least important factor. Therefore, group A1B2C1 is the most conducive to reduce the cutting temperature. The effects of coating thickness, coating material, and thickness ratio of soft and hard coatings on the main cutting force are shown in Figs. 12a–c, respectively. As can be seen in Fig. 12a, with an increase in the coating thickness, the main cutting force exhibits a slight upward trend and then stabilizes. At a coating thickness of 0.5 lm, the main cutting force is the smallest. As can be seen in Fig. 12b, the main cutting force of the WS /ZrN SHCCT tool is the Fig. 7 Cutting temperature of a the 18th group and b 26th group lowest, while that of the MoS /ZrN SHCCT tool is the greatest. In addition, it was found that all SHCCT tools combination of coating and textures is more conducive to with WS soft coating exhibited lower values of the main the reduction of the main cutting force. cutting force than those with the MoS soft coating. As can be seen in Fig. 12c, with a decrease in the thickness ratio of 3.3 Results of orthogonal experiments soft/hard coatings, the main cutting force exhibits an initial increasing trend, followed by a decline and a ﬁnal marginal The results of orthogonal experiments are presented in increase. When the thickness ratio of the soft and hard Table 6. According to the test results on group 25, the coatings is 0.9:0.1, the main cutting force is the lowest. processing of textures or depositing of a coating on the tool 123 Three-dimensional numerical simulation of soft/hard composite-coated textured tools in dry… Fig. 9 Main cutting force of a the second group and b 26th group Table 6 Results of orthogonal experiments Group A B C Scheme Cutting Main cutting temperature/ force/N 1 1 1 1 A1B1C1 77.3 85.7 2 1 2 2 A1B2C2 75.4 79.1 3 1 3 3 A1B3C3 114.0 85.1 4 1 4 4 A1B4C4 171.0 83.3 5 1 5 5 A1B5C5 120.0 83.7 Fig. 10 Main cutting force of four different tools 6 2 1 2 A2B1C2 106.0 84.5 7 2 2 3 A2B2C3 91.6 85.3 Figure 12d shows the effects of three parameters on the 8 2 3 4 A2B3C4 141.0 86.7 main cutting force. In decreasing order of their impact on 9 2 4 5 A2B4C5 197.0 85.2 the main cutting force, the parameters are thickness ratio, 10 2 5 1 A2B5C1 86.8 83.0 coating material, and coating thickness. Therefore, tools 11 3 1 3 A3B1C3 139.0 84.5 from group A1B2C1 were found to be the most efﬁcient in 12 3 2 4 A3B2C4 109.0 83.0 the main cutting force reduction. 13 3 3 5 A3B3C5 179.0 89.4 In summary, the optimal cutting performance is exhib- 14 3 4 1 A3B4C1 109.0 84.1 ited by the SHCCT tools (group A1B2C1) with a coating 15 3 5 2 A3B5C2 98.3 83.4 thickness of 0.5 lm, WS /ZrN coating materials, and a 16 4 1 4 A4B1C4 184.0 83.7 soft-to-hard coatings thickness ratio of 0.9:0.1, which 17 4 2 5 A4B2C5 131.0 88.8 ensures the lowest cutting temperature and smallest main 18 4 3 1 A4B3C1 62.9 82.2 cutting force. 19 4 4 2 A4B4C2 134.0 86.8 20 4 5 3 A4B5C3 108.0 84.2 21 5 1 5 A5B1C5 204.0 87.0 4 Conclusions 22 5 2 1 A5B2C1 70.3 80.3 The following conclusions were drawn 23 5 3 2 A5B3C2 95.8 85.1 24 5 4 3 A5B4C3 158.0 89.4 (i) A joint application of micro-textures and soft/hard 25 5 5 4 A5B5C4 120.0 82.9 composite coating was proposed for the dry 26 Without texturing – 428.0 97.4 turning SHCCT tool. Its FEM model was imple- and coating mented, and three-factor ﬁve-level orthogonal 27 Textured without – 346.0 90.5 cutting experiments of the tool with different coating coating parameters were conducted. Using numer- 28 Coated without A4B3C1 314.0 92.2 ical simulation, the effects of varying coating texturing 123 Y.-S. Lian et al. Fig. 11 Effects of coating thickness a coating material b and thickness ratio of hard and soft coating c on the cutting temperature, d comparisons of the effect of three factors on the cutting temperature Fig. 12 Effects of coating thickness a coating material b and thickness ratio of hard and soft coating c on the main cutting force, d comparisons of the effect of three factors on the main cutting force 123 Three-dimensional numerical simulation of soft/hard composite-coated textured tools in dry… 5. 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