213 125 125 4 4 J. Altman Research Consultant B. J. Everitt T. W. Robbins S. Glautier A. Markou D. Nutt R. Oretti G. D. Phillips 37 D Lordship Park N16 5UN London UK Department of Experimental Psychology University of Cambridge Downing Street CB2 3EB Cambridge UK Department of Psychology University of Swansea Swansea UK Department of Neuropharmacology The Scripps Research Institute La Jolla California USA Departments of Pharmacology and Psychiatry University of Bristol Bristol UK Department of Psychiatry University of Cardiff Cardiff UK Department of Psychology University of York York UK Abstract This article summarizes the main discussions at a meeting on the biological, social and clinical bases of drug addiction focused on contemporary topics in drug dependence. Four main domains are surveyed, reflecting the structure of the meeting: psychological and pharmacological factors; neurobiological substrates; risk factors (including a consideration of vulnerability from an environmental and genetic perspective); and clinical treatment. Among the topics discussed were tolerance, sensitization, withdrawal, craving and relapse; mechanisms of reinforcing actions of drugs at the behavioural, cognitive and neural levels; the role of subjective factors in drug dependence; approaches to the behavioural and molecular genetics of drug dependence; the use of functional neuroimaging; pharmaceutical and psychosocial strategies for treatment; epidemiological and sociological aspects of drug dependence. The survey takes into account the considerable disagreements and controversies arising from the discussions, but also reaches a degree of consensus in certain areas.
Psychopharmacology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 1996
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