213 113 113 3 4 Kenneth A. Perkins Joan E. Sexton Richard L. Stiller Carolyn Fonte Amy DiMarco Jennifer Goettler Annette Scierka Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine 3811 O'Hara Street 15213 Pittsburgh PA USA Department of Anesthesiology Children's Hospital Fifth and Desoto Streets 15213 Pittsburgh PA USA Abstract Although nicotine and caffeine have separately been shown to acutely increase subjective arousal, their combined effects are unclear. Furthermore, their effects during casual physical activity, the condition under which individuals usually experience nicotine and caffeine, are unknown. Smokers who were regular coffee drinkers ( n =19, 9 males, 10 females) participated in eight morning sessions, involving nicotine/placebo, caffeine/no caffeine, and rest/physical activity (i.e. 2×2×2 within-subjects design). Nicotine (15 µg/kg) or placebo was given via measured-dose nasal spray intermittently after consumption of decaf coffee with or without added caffeine (5 mg/kg), followed by subjective (Profile of Mood States (POMS), Stress-Arousal Checklist, visual analog scales) and cardiovascular (heart rate, blood pressure) measures. Casual physical activity was standardized by low-intensity bicycle riding while sitting comfortably. Results indicated significant subjective and cardiovascular effects of nicotine and caffeine individually, with the combination of nicotine and caffeine generally producing additive or greater than additive effects for each measure. However, activity mediated some of the subjective effects of nicotine, as nicotine appeared to be “stimulating” during rest but not during activity. There were no differences between males and females. These findings suggest that nicotine per se and caffeine generally have additive subjective and cardiovascular effects, and that nicotine may influence subjective stimulation differentially depending on whether a smoker is resting or engaged in casual activity.
Psychopharmacology – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 1, 1994
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