Nalmefene Stimulation of the HPA Axis. Background: The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a vital role in the body's response to stress. The traditional gold standard for evaluating the HPA axis, the insulin hypoglycemia test (IHT), has several known limitations, and a second test, the standard ACTH stimulation test, can detect severe deficiencies of cortisol, but often misses mild or early cases. Therefore, a better test for the evaluation of the HPA axis is needed. This study evaluated the opiate antagonist nalmefene as a stimulation test of the HPA axis. Methods: 25 healthy subjects were studied, 9 women and 16 men, mean age 30.4 yr. (range 21–55), and mean BMI 24.1 kg/m2 (range 18.6–34.2). Subjects received one of 3 doses of intravenously administered nalmefene: 2 mg (n = 6), 6 mg (n = 12), or 10 mg (n = 7). Serum cortisol and plasma ACTH were measured before and serially over two hours after the administration of nalmefene. Results: ACTH and cortisol levels rose significantly and similarly after the 10 mg dose and the 6 mg dose. After the 10 mg dose, mean peak ACTH was 82.4 ± 22.6 pg/ml and mean peak cortisol was 25.2 ± 1.8 μg/dl. After the 6 mg dose, mean peak ACTH was 70.3 ± 7.7 pg/ml and mean peak cortisol was 24.7 ± 1.7 μg/dl. Cortisol levels rose above 18 μg/dl in all subjects receiving 10 mg of nalmefene, and in all but two of the subjects receiving 6 mg of nalmefene. Side effects to nalmefene were of greater duration and intensity in the subjects receiving 10 mg of nalmefene vs. those receiving 6 or 2 mg. These included most notably fatigue, lightheadedness, nausea and vomiting. Conclusions: Of the nalmefene doses we studied, 6 mg achieved the best combination of stimulation of ACTH and cortisol and fewest side effects. If further studies show a concordance between nalmefene and IHT, nalmefene testing could be used to assess the HPA axis in patients at risk for dysfunction of this axis.
Pituitary – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 23, 2005
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera