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Spaceborne, UAV and ground-based remote sensing techniques for landslide mapping, monitoring and early warning

Spaceborne, UAV and ground-based remote sensing techniques for landslide mapping, monitoring and... Background: The current availability of advanced remote sensing technologies in the field of landslide analysis allows for rapid and easily updatable data acquisitions, improving the traditional capabilities of detection, mapping and monitoring, as well as optimizing fieldwork and investigating hazardous or inaccessible areas, while granting at the same time the safety of the operators. Among Earth Observation (EO) techniques in the last decades optical Very High Resolution (VHR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery represent very effective tools for these implementations, since very high spatial resolution can be obtained by means of optical systems, and by the new generations of sensors designed for interferometric applications. Although these spaceborne platforms have revisiting times of few days they still cannot match the spatial detail or time resolution achievable by means of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Digital Photogrammetry (DP), and ground-based devices, such as Ground-Based Interferometric SAR (GB-InSAR), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and InfraRed Thermography (IRT), which in the recent years have undergone a significant increase of usage, thanks to their technological development and data quality improvement, fast measurement and processing times, portability and cost-effectiveness. In this paper the potential of the abovementioned techniques and the effectiveness of their synergic use is explored in the field of landslide analysis by analyzing various case studies, characterized by different slope instability processes, spatial scales and risk management phases. Results: Spaceborne optical Very High Resolution (VHR) and SAR data were applied at a basin scale for analysing shallow rapid-moving and slow-moving landslides in the emergency management and post- disaster phases, demonstrating their effectiveness for post-disaster damage assessment, landslide detection and rapid mapping, the definition of states of activity and updating of landslide inventory maps. The potential of UAV-DP for very high resolution periodical checks of instability phenomena was explored at a slope-scale in a selected test site; two shallow landslides were detected and characterized, in terms of areal extension, volume and temporal evolution. The combined use of GB-InSAR, TLS and IRT ground based methods, was applied for the surveying, monitoring and characterization of rock slides, unstable cliffs and translational slides. These applications were evaluated in the framework of successful rapid risk scenario evaluation, long term monitoring and emergency management activities. All of the results were validated by means of field surveying activities. (Continued on next page) * Correspondence: stefano.morelli@unifi.it Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence, Italy Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 2 of 23 (Continued from previous page) Conclusion: The attempt of this work is to give a contribution to the current state of the art of advanced spaceborne and ground based techniques applied to landslide studies, with the aim of improving and extending their investigative capacity in the framework of a growing demand for effective Civil Protection procedures in pre- and post-disaster initiatives. Advantages and limitations of the proposed methods, as well as further fields of applications are evaluated for landslide-prone areas. Keywords: Landslides, Remote Sensing, SAR data, Optical VHR imagery, GB-InSAR, UAV, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, Infrared Thermography Background imagery (Singhroy, 1995; Fruneau et al., 1996; Landslides play an important role in the evolution and Massonnet and Feigl, 1998; Kimura and Yamaguchi, shaping of aerial/subaerial landscapes (Brunetti et al., 2000; Hilley et al., 2004; Hanssen, 2005; Colesanti and 2015), representing a major cause of loss of life, injuries, Wasowski, 2006; Meisina et al., 2008; Herrera et al., property damage, socio-economic disruption and envir- 2009; 2011; Bardi et al., 2014; Crosetto et al., 2016) to onmental degradation (WP/WLI, 1993; Canuti et al., study slow moving landslides. The ability to make nu- 2004; Petley et al., 2005; Petley, 2012), especially if they merous point measurements of displacement over the are associated with other natural hazards (like earth- landslide body allows one the detection and mapping of quakes, volcanic eruptions, meteorological events and the actively deforming slopes (e.g. Righini et al., 2012), wildfires). Because of such habitual combinations, reli- the characterization and monitoring of landslide mech- able numbers for the social impact only due to landslides anism (Tofani et al., 2013b) and, through the analysis of are difficult to obtain on a global scale and the economic time series of deformation, the identification of velocity losses are certainly underestimated (or not quoted at changes in the landslide evolution (Berti et al., 2013), as all). This general condition often contributes to reducing well as the modeling of large slope instability (Berardino the concern individuals and authorities have about land- et al., 2003). Advanced terrestrial remote sensing tech- slide risk (Kjekstad, and Highland 2009). Although in nologies, such as GB-InSAR, TLS, IRT and digital photo- most of the disaster-prone areas the consideration of the grammetry (DP) are nowadays applied in the field of social-cultural and socio-economic conditions in relation slope instability detection, mapping and monitoring, for to their physical safety is still very confused, the applica- short/long term landslide management (real time, near tion of appropriate technologies for landslide detection, real time and deferred time) (Lillesand et al., 2014). monitoring and early warning systems are increasingly They are characterized by operational efficiency and considered crucial by local authorities in reducing the accuracy of data not reached by traditional methods: risk of landslide disasters. EO from space has found high-resolution acquisition, multifunction versatility, many uses in the natural sciences, but it is only in the device portability, low cost sensors, easy and fast last decades that technological advances have also data processing. Such equipment allows for system- extended to landslides analysis (Mantovani et al., 1996; atic and easily updatable acquisitions of data that Ferretti et al., 2001; Canuti et al., 2004; Metternicht et may also enhance the implementation of effective al., 2005; van Westen et al., 2008; Casagli et al., 2010; early warning systems at slope scale. In this paper Martha et al., 2010; Guzzetti et al., 2012; Lu et al., 2012; the potential of the abovementioned remote sensing Tofani et al., 2013a). Nowadays rapid advances are mak- techniques (both spaceborne and ground-based), and ing EO techniques more effective for landslide detection, their applications for landslide detection and mapping, monitoring and hazard assessment. Applica- mapping are evaluated. tions are originating from nearly all types of sensors The presented techniques are described by means available today (Tofani et al. 2013b). Rapid develop- of their main technical features and applicability in ments in this field are fostered by the very high spatial different observed scenarios, typology of landslide resolution obtained by optical systems (currently in the (Cruden and Varnes, 1996; Hungr et al., 2014) and order of tens of centimeters) and by the launching of geomorphological setting. Some case studies are also SAR sensors, purposely built for interferometric applica- shown and discussed in order to exhibit good tions with revisiting times of few days, such as TerraSAR practices in landslide characterization and prediction X and COSMO-SkyMed (Tofani et al., 2013a). Landslide by means of different techniques and sensors in syn- detection and mapping benefit from both optical ergic action. The main advantages and disadvantages (Hervas et al. 2003, Cheng et al., 2004, Marcelino et al., of the presented techniques are described in the text 2009, Martha and Kerle 2012, Lu et al., 2011) and radar and in a tabular form. Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 3 of 23 Methods: Applied techniques theoretical models based on the panchromatic-derived spatial infor- principles: a state of the art mation (Eyers et al., 1998; Chini et al., 2011; Martha and Spaceborne platforms Kerle, 2012; Kurtz et al., 2014). The False Colour Compos- Optical VHR imagery ites (FCCs) of the VHR images are often used to discrim- The most important active optical satellites are reported inate lithologies or terrain having different characteristics in Fig. 1. Optical data are usually used for landslide (weathering, water content, vegetation cover) (Ciampalini detection and mapping through visual inspection or ana- et al., 2012; Lamri et al., 2016). lytical methods (Metternicht et al., 2005; Fiorucci et al., The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 2011; Parker et al. 2014; Guzzetti et al., 2012; Mondini derived from optical images, is another index widely et al., 2014). For example, several optical derivative prod- used to map landslides by means of evaluating the ucts (panchromatic, pan sharpen, false colour composits, vegetation cover rate (Lin et al., 2004). Higher values of rationing) can help in visual interpretation for landslide NDVI can be related to a wide vegetation cover, whereas mapping (Casagli et al., 2005; Marcelino et al., 2009; Ma lower values can represents areas affected by landslides. et al. 2016). In image fusion procedures, multispectral Furthermore, multispectral images can be enhanced to channels, characterized by a coarser spatial resolution detect landslides by means of analytical methods based than the panchromatic, are downscaled through analytical on the spectral characteristics of the land surface and Fig. 1 Active optical and SAR satellites for landslide mapping and monitoring. The numbers on the right of the figure report the revisting time of each satellite. RCM: Radarsat constellation mission, CSK: COSMO-Skymed, CSK–SG: COSMO-Skymed Second Generation Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 4 of 23 automatic approaches focus on the classification of accuracy theoretically better than 0.1 mm/yr. Each image pixels (Martha et al., 2010; Mondini et al., 2011). measurement is referred temporally and spatially to a Few studies have described the use of hyperspectral data unique reference image and to a stable reference point. for recognition and classification of landslides based on MIT analysis is designed to generate time-series of Earth surface characteristics since most of the hyper- ground deformations for individual PS, assuming differ- spectral satellite sensors are still under development ent types of deformation models (e.g., linear, nonlinear (Scaioni et al., 2014). or hybrid). .In the field of landslide investigations the po- tential of SAR data has been exploited at different scales: SAR data from national (Adam et al., 2011) to regional (Meisina The family of SAR satellite sensors (Fig. 1) orbits the et al., 2008; 2013; Ciampalini et al. 2016a, b) basin (Lu Earth at an altitude ranging from 500 to 800 km, follow- et al., 2012) slope (Frodella et al., 2016) and building ing sun-synchronous, near-polar orbits, slightly inclined scale (Ciampalini et al., 2014; Bianchini et al., 2015; with respect of Earth meridians. The most commonly Nolesini et al., 2016), as well as in different phases of used bands in SAR applications are C-band (5–6 GHz, landslide response (Canuti et al., 2007) and Civil Protec- ~5,6 cm wavelength), X-band (8–12 GHz, ~3,1 cm tion practice (Farina et al., 2008). Other application wavelength) and L-band (1–2 GHz ~23 cm wavelength) fields include subsidence phenomena (Raspini et al., with a temporal resolution depending on the satellite 2012; 2014; Rosi et al. 2014; 2016), earthquakes (Bűrg- revisiting time (Fig. 1). A SAR image is composed of mann et al., 2005; Sousa et al., 2010) and volcanic activ- pixel characterized by amplitude and phase values. Phase ities (Hooper et al., 2004; Vilardo et al., 2010; Parker values of a single SAR image is partly depends on the et al., 2014). sensor-target distance and is the key element to detect ground displacement. SAR Interferometry is the tech- UAV and Ground-based methods nique focused on the measure changes of signal phase UAV-DP over time through the analysis of at least two SAR im- DP is a well-established technique for acquiring dense ages (Fruneau et al., 1996; Singhroy et al., 1998). A suit- 3D geometric information in slopes from stereoscopic able approach to exploit phase variation between two overlaps of photo sequences captured by a calibrated consecutive radar images acquired over the same target digital camera (Chandler, 1999; Lane et al., 2000; is the Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) Sturzenegger and Stead, 2009; Zhang et al., 2004). Dur- (Bamler and Hartl, 1998; Rosen et al., 2000). Geomet- ing past few years, with the rapid development of DP rical and temporal decorrelation and atmospheric effects techniques and the availability of ease-using, focusable caused by the variation of the phase reflectivity value of and relatively cheap digital cameras, this technique some radar targets reduce the reliability of the D-InSAR gained wide applications in many fields, such as 3D technique (Berardino et al., 2002). In order to overcome building reconstruction, heritage protection and land- these limitations InSAR-based information can be en- slides studies (Grussenmeyer et al., 2008; Scaioni et al., hanced through multi-temporal interferometric tech- 2015; Fan et al., 2016). In this latter field, depending on niques (MIT), based on analysis of long stacks of co- the camera lens-setting, DP can be divided into two registered SAR imagery (Ferretti et al. 2001; Crosetto et fields of activity (Gopi, 2007): far range, usually more al, 2016). In the past years, several MIT approaches have exploited for landslide characterization and general map- been developed such as: the Permanent Scatterers Inter- ping (Wolter et al., 2014), and close range, having a wide ferometry, named PSInSAR™ (Ferretti et al., 2011; Cole- use in high precision metrological and deformation santi et al., 2003), the SqueeSAR™ (Ferretti et al., 2011), monitoring applications (Cardenal et al., 2008; Scaioni et the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers StaMPS al., 2015). More recently the combination of rapid devel- (Hooper et al., 2004; Hooper et al., 2007), the Interfero- opment of low cost and small UAVs and the improve- metric Point Target Analysis IPTA (Werner et al., 2003; ments of conventional sensors in terms of cost and size, Strozzi et al., 2006), the Coherence Pixel Technique led to new, promising scenarios in environmental remote CPT (Mora et al., 2006), the Small Baseline Subset SBAS sensing, surface modelling and monitoring (Colomina and (Lanari et al., 2004; Berardino et al., 2003), the Stable Molina, 2014; James and Robson, 2012; Remondino et al., Point Network SPN (Casu et al., 2006; Crosetto et al., 2011; Eisenbeiss and Sauerbier, 2011). 2008), the Persistent Scatterer Pairs PSP (Herrera et al., 2011) and the Quasi PS technique QPS (Costantini et GB-InSAR al., 2008). Signal analysis of a network of coherent radar GB-InSAR system consists of a computer-controlled targets (Permanent Scatterers, PS) allows estimating oc- microwave transceiver, characterized by a transmitting curred displacement, acquisitions by acquisition. Line of and receiving antennas, which by moving along a mech- Sight (LOS) deformation rate can be estimated with an anical linear rail is capable to synthesize a linear aperture Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 5 of 23 along the azimuth direction (Tarchi et al., 1997; Rudolf applications (Abellán et al. 2006; 2011; Jaboyedoff et al., et al., 1999; Pieraccini et al., 2002). The obtained SAR 2007; Ferrero et al., 2009; Oppikofer et al. 2009; Gigli et image contains amplitude and phase information of the al. 2014a, b, c). Thanks to the high resolution of the observed scenario backscattered echo in the acquiring laser scanning survey it is also possible to extract even time interval (from few to less than 1 min with the most the smallest features, such as the structural crack pattern, modern systems) (Luzi et al., 2004; 2010; Monserrat et the crack opening direction (Gigli et al., 2009; 2012), and al., 2014). In a GB-InSAR interferogram the displace- the orientation of critical discontinuities within the rock ment obtained from the phase difference calculation can mass (Gigli and Casagli, 2011; Gigli et al., 2014b). Further- be represented in 2D maps, in which the chromatic scale more, this technique is capable of measuring ground 3D covers a total value corresponding to half of the temporal displacements by comparing sequential datasets wavelength used. However, since the phase is periodic, it of the same scenario (Rosser et al., 2005; Abellán et al., cyclically assumes the same values crating image- 2011). The intensity data can also provide some informa- interpreting problems. This issue, known as phase ambi- tion about the type of material and the soil moisture con- guity, and can be solved through interpretation based on tent of the targets, which can add information regarding field geological knowledge or by adopting apposite phase the landslide main geomorphologic features (Voegtle et al., unwrapping algorithms (Ghiglia & Romero, 1994), which 2008; Franceschi et al., 2009). count the number of cycles performed by the wave obtaining cumulated displacement maps. Given the rela- IRT tive short distances at which GB-InSAR apparatuses IRT is the branch of remote sensing dealing with measuring usually operate (typically less than 3 km), they work in the radiant temperature of Earth’s surface features from a Ku band (1.67–2.5 cm). The main research applications distance (Spampinato et al. 2011). The product of an infra- of GB-InSAR soon became focused on slope monitoring red thermographic survey is a pixel matrix (thermogram), (Tarchi et al., 2003; Pieraccini et al., 2002; 2003), for civil collected through the thermal camera array detector (Mal- protection purposes (Del Ventisette et al., 2011; Intrieri et dague, 2001), which following the correction of the sensitive al., 2012; Bardi et al., 2014; 2016; Lombardi et al., 2016) parameters (object emissivity, path length, air temperature and, more recently, for mining safety (Farina et al., 2011; and humidity) represents a radiant temperature map of the Severin et al., 2014). Other fields include volcanoes moni- investigated object. The presence within the observed sur- toring (Di Traglia et al., 2013; 2014a; 2014b; Intrieri et al., face of fractures, subsurface voids, moisture and seepage 2013; Nolesini et al., 2013; Calvari et al., 2016), cultural zones, will influence the material thermal characteristics heritage sites (Tapete et al., 2013; Pratesi et al., 2015; (density, thermal capacity and conductivity) modifying its Nolesini et al., 2016; Frodella et al., 2016), glaciers and snow- heat transfer (Teza et al., 2012). Therefore, the presence of pack sinkholes (Intrieri et al., 2015). an inhomogeneity within the observed scenario will be dis- played in the corresponding radiant temperature map as an TLS irregular thermal pattern with respect to the surroundings A TLS device produces and emits a beam characterized (a “thermal anomaly”) (Frodella et al., 2014b). In recent years by a directional, coherent and in-phase electromagnetic IRT has undergone a significant increase of applications in radiation (Jaboyedoff et al., 2012). The laser scanner by the field of geosciences (Spampinato et al. 2011), neverthe- measuring with high accuracy (millimeter or centimeter) less in the study of slope instability processes it is still experi- the back-scattered laser signal, is capable of obtaining mentally used, except for a few interesting experimental the exact position of a mesh of points (point cloud), studies (Wu et al., 2005; Baroň et al. 2012; Frodella et al., characterized by (x, y, z) cartesian coordinates (Slob et 2014b). In particular, IRT (often coupled with laser scan- al., 2002; Frohlich and Mettenleiter, 2004; Turner et al., ning) is applied with the following purposes: i) obtain infor- 2006; Slob et al., 2007). The device high acquisition rate mation about the rock mass fracturing (Squarzoni et al. (up to hundreds of thousands points per second) makes 2008); ii) detect shallow surface weakness in rock walls the detailed 3D shape of the object available in a short (Teza et al. 2012); iii) perform rockfall/slide susceptibility as- operating time. By defining the coordinates of specific sessment (Gigli et al. 2014a, c; Teza et al. 2015); iv) map laser reflectors within the surveyed area through a Dif- ephemeral drainage patterns (Frodella et al., 2014a; 2015); v) ferential Global Positioning System in Real Time Kine- integrate traditional geo-structural and geomechanical sur- matic mode (DGPS-RTK; Morelli et al., 2012; Tapete et veys (Mineo et al., 2015; Mineo and Pappalardo 2016; Pap- al., 2015; Pazzi et al., 2016), it is possible to link the ob- palardo et al., 2016). tained high-resolution 3D surface digital model to a glo- bal reference system. In landslide studies TLS has been Results: Study area applications increasingly used for the geometrical and geostructural In this section, the potential of the presented techniques characterization and unstable rock cliffs monitoring and their synergic use is explored for the detection, Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 6 of 23 mapping, and monitoring of landslides, through various case (Ciampalini et al., 2014; Bardi et al., 2014; Bianchini studies characterized by different types and scales of instabil- et al., 2015; Ciampalini et al. 2015a, b; 2016a,b). ity phenomena, hazardous scenarios and operational modes (Fig. 2). The employed remote sensing systems are listed in Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) for mapping shallow Table 1. rapid-moving landslides: the Giampilieri case study The purpose of this case study is to introduce a new ap- Spaceborne platforms proach for a rapid mapping of newly-triggered landslides The study areas for spaceborne applications comprise using an objected-oriented change detection technique. two different mountain chain sectors (the Peloritani and The methodology aims at a semi-automatic and rapid the Nebrodi mountains; Sicily Island, Southern Italy; analysis with a minimum of operator involvement and Fig. 2), in which the geological features are characterized manual analysis steps. Compared to conventional by the typical features of recently uplifted areas, devel- approaches for landslide mapping, this approach benefits oped on a crystalline basement with steep slopes and from (i) an image segmentation with problem-specified shallow clayey soil cover. In the late afternoon of Octo- scale optimization, and (ii) a multi-temporal analysis at st ber 1 2009, an intense storm affected the area between object level with several systemized spectral and textural the Peloritani Mountains ridge and the Ionian coastline metrics. This procedure has been applied to the two of (Ciampalini et al., 2015a; Del Ventisette et al., 2012), the most damaged areas of Giampilieri, including a where the main villages are located. During the same training area (ca. 1.8 km ) for algorithm development, night, the persisting rainfall triggered more than 600 and a larger independent testing area (ca. 8.1 km ). The landslides, such as shallow soil slides and debris flows, latter allows the robustness and transferability of the al- on an area of about 50 km . The assessed number of gorithm (without any change of ruleset and threshold) fatalities caused by landslides and inundation was 37 and the corresponding accuracy to be assessed by com- (including 31 deaths and 6 missing persons), with parison with a manually mapped landslide inventory pre- 122 injured people and 2019 evacuated people pared from fieldworks and subsequent modifications (Ardizzone et al., 2012; Del Ventisette et al., 2012; from image interpretation. Two Quickbird images ac- th th Raspini et al., 2013); the worst damages were quired on September 6 2006 and October 8 2009, reported in the village of Giampilieri (Fig. 2). Fur- with 0.3% and zero cloud cover respectively, were used thermore, between 2009 and 2010, following heavy in the study (Table 1). The application with the optical and persisting heavy rainfall, several municipalities in data is based upon the OOA (Lu et al., 2011). OOA is the Nebrodi Mountains were strongly affected by mainly dealing with the measuring unit of ‘object’, which several complex, rotational and deep-seated land- can be defined as ‘individually resolvable entities located slides which damaged buildings and infrastructures within a digital image which are perceptually generated Fig. 2 a Landslide case studies location; b Giampilieri (debris flows); c Nebrodi area (complex landslides); d Ricasoli (shallow landslides); e Western Elba Island (unstable rock masses); f San Leo (collapsed rock cliff); g Santa Trada (translational slide) Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 7 of 23 Table 1 Technical features of the described remote sensing systems System type Optical VHR SAR GB-INSAR TLS UAV-DP IRT Satellite/Device Model Quickbird Envisat/Ers/Radarsat1/CSK Ellegi-LiSALab Riegl LMS-Z420i Canon FLIR SC620 Ixus 240hs Wavelenght VIS/N-IR C-band (5.6 cm) Ku band (≈1.7 cm) N-IR (0.74–1.4 μm) VIS LW-IR 0.4–0.9 μm X-band (3.1 cm) (0.39/0.74 μm) (7.5–13 μ) Revisiting time/ 1–3.5 days 35/24(days) ≈1/4 min 12000 pt/s 24frame/s 30frame/s Measurement rate 12 hours (at 40°latitude) Image spatial/resolution 2.4 m 20×5/10×5/ 0.3×0.75 cm 0.008° 4608 × 3456 pix 640×480 pix 1×1 (m) (at 100 m distance) Maximum distance/Range 450–482 km 772-774/782-785/ 3–4 km 800 m 150 m −40/500 °C 793/620 (km) N-E-ellipsoidic height/ 23 m (horizontal) 2-6-1.5 m(C-Band) <1 mm ± 10mm 1–5cm ± 2°C Accuracy 1-4-1.5 m (X band) from high-resolution pixel groups’ (Hay et al., 2003). approach (Ferretti et al., 2011). The SqueeSAR algorithm Detailed information on the methodology and the algo- has been applied to C-band SAR dataset acquired by rithm developed can be found in Lu et al. (2011). The ERS (08/09/1992 - 24/11/2000) and Envisat (22/01/ algorithm developed based on the training area was dir- 2003-20/05/2009) missions along ascending orbits. Fol- ectly applied in the testing area. lowing the approaches proposed by Farina et al. (2008) The final outputs for the testing area are shown in and Bianchini et al. (2012), deformation measurements Fig. 3: in order to evaluate the accuracy of this approach, extracted by means of SqueeSAR technique have been OOA-derived landslides were compared with a manually- coupled and integrated with thematic maps (topographic mapped landslide inventory. The accuracy assessment was and geological maps), optical data (ortophoto, optical carried out for the number and the spatial extent of satellite VHR images and multi-temporal aerial photos) mapped landslides. For the spatial extent of landslides a and available landslides inventory maps, in order to user’s accuracy of 75.9% and a producer’saccuracy of identify the areas characterized by high hydro-geological 69.9% were achieved. In terms of the number of land- hazard (hotspot mapping), related to the occurrence of slides, user’s and producer’s accuracies of 81.8 and 69.5%, extremely and very slow moving landslide (according to respectively, were reached. the classification of Cruden & Varnes, 1996). Twenty-six sites have been identified, for which landslides have been Detection and mapping of slow-moving landslides with SAR detected and mapped (Fig. 4). On the basis of available data: the Sicily case studies multi–interferometric data these sites were assessed as Spaceborne SAR analysis of ground deformation in the the most critical in terms of hydro-geological hazard, Peloritani (nearby the Giampilieri village) and Nebrodi both for the type of instability detected and/or the extent area (Fig. 2) was performed using the SqueeSAR of the mapped phenomena and/or the measured Fig. 3 The used Quickbird imagery in the optical VHR analysis of Giampilieri area (Peloritani mountains): a pre-event QuickBird imagery; b post-event QuickBird imagery (false color 4-3-2); c The result of OOA landslide mapping in the independent testing area (yellow areas = mapped shallow landslides) Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 8 of 23 Fig. 4 Location of the twenty-six sites in the Nebrodi area which are characterized by high hydro-geological risk (hotspot mapping) according to the D-InSAR analysis. In the inset the landslide mapping of the village of Croce is reported deformation velocities and/or the presence of elements After the 2009 and 2010 events that affected the Nebrodi at risk. In the inset of Fig. 4 the hotspot analysis for the Mountains, the SqueeSAR technique was applied to area of the village of Croce (identified with number 9) is characterize the triggered hillslope phenomena both at the reported. The area is located on the right bank of the basin and at the local scale (Fig. 5). At the basin scale, Guidomandri creek and is characterized by the presence SqueeSAR PSI data was applied to update the available of several elements at risk, including, beside the village Landslide Inventory Map (LIM) including information on itself, isolated buildings and minor settlements. Pre- typology and state of activity of each identified landslide. existing landslide inventory maps do not report slope The updating procedure has been performed using: (i) radar instability in the study area. interpretation of four different available SAR datasets; (ii) The SqueeSAR results also show a large sector of the photo-interpretation of 1:33000 scale aerial photographs slope characterized by a displacement with velocity ran- flown in 1954, 1955 and 2005; and (iii) field surveys. InSAR ging from 1.6 to 4.8 mm/yr Envisat dataset (2003–2009). displacement measurements were acquired in different pe- Photo-interpretation of stereoscopic colour images riods (2006–2009, RADARSAT-1 scenes and 2011–2012, (1:3500 scale) and analysis of information provided by COSMO-SkyMed images). Considering the limitation of the SqueeSAR results allow to detect and map a large com- adopted technique, the updating of the pre-existing LIM plex system of active continuous slides affecting the area. was limited to the extremely slow and very slow moving Such deformation rates do not pose threat to population, landslides (faster phenomena have been excluded due to but can cause, persisting for many years, damages to their rapid kinematics). buildings and manmade infrastructures. Cracks and The new LIM (Fig. 5) includes 566 events: 15 (2.7%) damages have been surveyed during field validation, rockfalls and topples, 136 (24.0%) complex landslides, which also helped to confirm the presence and the 188 (33.2%) flows and 227 (40.1%) slides, covering an extension of the active movements through the identifi- area of 74.1 km . The comparison between the pre- cation of tension cracks, scarps and counterscarps. existing and the new LIMs has been performed using Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 9 of 23 Fig. 5 Ground deformation velocity maps in the surroundings of Militello Rosmarino town (Nebrodi) obtained using Radarsat-1 (a) and COSMO- SkyMed (b) PSI data. Pre-existing LIM (c) and updated LIM (d) three classes: (i) confirmed, (ii) enlarged with respect to evaluate the potential of UAV-DP to characterize and to the pre-existing LIM and (iii) new (landslide not monitor landslides. In particular, a multitemporal photo- included in the pre-existing LIM). This approach led to grammetric survey, carried out for the northern slope of the enlargement of 120 events (21.2%) of the pre- Ricasoli, are compared to define at very high resolution, existing LIM, to the confirmation of 155 events (27.4%), morphologic features of the slope and their evolution in and to the recognition of 291 (51.4%) new phenomena. time. The survey was performed using a multicopter drone (Saturn) with an innovative perimetric chassis, fully de- UAV and Ground based methods signed, built and patented by the Department of Earth UAV-DP for landslide characterization and mapping: The Science of the University of Florence (Fig. 6). The images Ricasoli case study were processed using Agisoft Photoscan Professional A periodical check was performed in the Ricasoli village (Agisoft LLC, 2016) software and the resulting data were (Upper Arno river Valley,Tuscany, Italy; Fig. 2), in order to implemented in a GIS environment using the ESRI ArcGIS Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 10 of 23 Fig. 6 a, b and c Orthophotos acquired during the three surveys in Ricasoli village by means of a special camera mounted on the Saturn multicopter drone (d) and (e and f) the differences in height calculated using the high resolution DTMs. The main scarps and landslide features are detected and analyzed based on the results of the DTM comparison package. Three 3D point clouds, acquired at a few months a local panoramic roadway (provincial roadway n° 25) one to each other and filtered in order to remove all the (Fig. 2). The area is characterized by very steep rock points processed on trees and high vegetation, were used slopes overlooking the roadway, which due to their com- to build high-resolution DTMs (0.05 m/pix) (Fig. 6). The plex geostructural setting and degree of fracturing (Gigli DTMs were compared to detect any morphological change et al., 2014a), in 2009 underwent the detachment of rock between the three acquisitions, to characterize the landslides mass portions and rock debris. In order to define the and, in addition, to precisely point out features as indicators risk scenarios for the roadway transportation security of landslide-prone areas on the slope (Fig. 6). As a result, conditions, the slope instability occurrences were inves- two landslides were detected and characterized, in terms of tigated through a methodology based on the integration areal extension, volume and temporal evolution. The overall of accurate geological and geomechanical field surveys extent and volume of the mass movements detected in and terrestrial remote sensing techniques, such as TLS Ricasoli are summarized in Table 2. The slope is currently and IRT (Frodella and Morelli, 2013; Gigli et al., 2014a). being monitored by performing repeated aerial surveys, and IRT surveys in particular were carried out in the assessed landslide evolution is being used as an input for Table 2 Extent and volume of the landslides occurred in the current mitigation works planning. northern slope of Ricasoli during the period of study Landslide Occurrence Extent (m ) Extimate TLS and IRT for risk scenario assessment: the Elba Island 3 Volume (m ) case study Landslide1 01/03/2016 950 480 The investigated area is located on the western Elba Landslide2 09/03/2016 320 70 Island coastline (Central Italy), along a 250 m stretch of Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 11 of 23 correspondence of rock mass most critical sectors, in threshold value of 1000 m , three protruding rock order to detect thermal anomalies connected to open masses were detected and labeled from north to south fractures, water seepage and moisture zones, validate the as M1, M2, and M3 (Figs. 7a and 8a, b, c). unstable block volume calculation, and rapidly assess the M3 rock mass, in addition to the basal slipping plane, hydraulic conditions along the more critical rock mass is also delimited southeastward from the stable portion discontinuities. The obtained TLS 3D surface model of the rock slope by a second sub-vertical plane (belong- contributed to characterize the morphological variability ing to JN2 set in Fig. 5c and D3 in Fig. 5d). The obtained of the investigated area: a rough morphology, character- surface temperature maps highlighted warm thermal ized by creek erosion gullies isolating jutting rock mass anomalies connected to air circulation were detected in portions (Fig. 7c). Figure 6c shows the stereographic correspondence of the open portions of the JN3 projection of the collected field survey structural data: discontinuities delimiting the detected M1, M2, and M3 five main discontinuity sets were identified, JN3 set in masses (Fig. 8g, h, i). The abovementioned discontinu- particular, including high persistent decimetric-spaced ities detected on the thermograms follow closely the EJ discontinuity planes (=exfoliation joints, EJ) dipping par- basal planes; this interpretation was strengthened by the allel with respect to the slope, represent slipping planes comparison of the thermograms with the optical images isolating large rock mass portions. that confirmed no evidence of water flow along the de- Furthermore a semi-automatic geo-structural survey tected discontinuities. For these reasons, dry conditions was performed by means of a Matlab tool (DiAna = Dis- were diagnosed for all M1, M2, and M3 basal slipping continuity Analysis; Gigli and Casagli 2011), on a limited planes, and the absence of water pressure was consid- sector of the rock mass not covered by nets, rock bolts, ered in the carried out stability analysis (Gigli et al., and fences. Figure 7d reports the poles of the semi- 2014a). The resulting assessed rock mass volumes automatically extracted discontinuities (labeled from D1 (expressed in cubic meter) are 3706 (M1), 4359 (M2), to D7, and represented in 3D in Fig. 7b). Given the geo- and 1293 (M3) respectively (Fig. 8c, d, e). logical setting of the investigated area, and the most probable detected failure mechanism occurring (planar Long-term monitoring of collapse-affected rock wall by failure along JN3 discontinuity set), an iterative proced- means of GB-InSAR, TLS and IRT: The San Leo case study ure was applied with the aim of identifying the max- The town of San Leo is located in the southwestern sec- imum credible scenario. A Matlab routine was built for tor of the Emilia Romagna Region (northern Italy; Fig. 2), this purpose by moving on the 3D surface a plane with on top of a limestone isolated rock massif overlying the same orientation of JN3 set. By selecting a volume clayey slopes, which is historically affected by instability Fig. 7 a High-definition 3D surface of the western Elba coastline (dots mark the different TLS scan positions, the square delimitates semiautomatic geomechanical surveyed area; b 3D representation of all the joint sets extracted; stereographic projection of discontinuity poles and modal planes of the main sets collected in the investigated area by means of traditional field surveys (c), and the semi-automatic analysis (d) (modified after Gigli et al., 2014a) Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 12 of 23 Fig. 8 Optical images of the unstable rock masses of the western Elba coastline (a =M1; c =M2; e = M3); related 3D digital model with the detected basal and lateral slipping planes (b, d, f); mosaicked thermograms from IRT (g =M1, h =M2, and i = M3) acquired around 1 p.m., November 2011 (dotted lines mark the basal slipping planes; white squares on the thermogram allow a comparison with the correspondent sectors in the optical images, acquired by the built- in digital camera) (modified after Gigli et al., 2014a) th phenomena. On February 27 , 2014 an entire portion of map, which allowed to read detected LOS displacements the rock plate north-eastern sector collapsed, causing a directly on the observed scenario 3D representation, and huge rockfall. Following the event a GB-InSAR monitor- therefore both to better localize the most critical areas, ing activity coupled with TLS surveys was carried out, in and compare the different techniques displacement data order to manage the post-event emergency phase and (Fig. 10). evaluate the residual risk (Frodella et al., 2016). Further- The GB-InSAR data acquired during the first monitor- more, IRT surveys were performed in order to integrate ing year allowed to assess a general stability of the rock the TLS and GB-InSAR data for the rock wall cliff and the observed town structures, and to detect characterization. The obtained 3D terrain model re- critical areas, corresponding to: i) a detensioned rock vealed a rock wall surface, characterized by criticalities block located at the foot of the monitored rock wall cen- such as overhanging sectors, ledges and niches (Fig. 9a). tral sector (confirming the TLS analysis of an ongoing 3D temporal variations of the terrain model were de- rock block toppling); and ii) the rockfall deposits (metric tected by comparing sequential datasets acquired in the and decametric size boulders and blocks in a coarse carried out different laser scanning surveys; the resulting sandy-clayey matrix, corresponding to the maximum re- th 3D rock wall temporal variations, from March 7 2014 corded cumulative displacement in the investigated area. th th to December 18 2014 (Fig. 9b, c). The deformational Surface temperature maps collected on April 9 2014 field analysis provided evidence of an ongoing rock (following a period characterized by local intense block toppling (with an estimated volume of 450 m ), rainfall) allowed to detect widespread seepage sectors in which displacement evolution reached values ranging correspondence of a rock mass key discontinuity, corre- from 12 to about 50 cm (Fig. 9b, c). The scan compari- sponding to a high persistent normal fault dissecting the son also provided the detection of minor rockfall whole rock massif (oval 1 in Fig. 10b, c). In this geo- phenomena (areas colored in blue in Fig. 9b, c) which logical, morphological and structural context discontinu- volumes are listed in Table 3. ities affected by seepage represent potential criticalities The TLS 3D model was merged with the GB-InSAR with respect to instability phenomena, as confirmed by data obtaining a 3D GB-InSAR cumulative displacement minor seepage sectors (ovals 4 in Fig. 9b, c), which are Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 13 of 23 Fig. 9 a High-resolution 3D surface of the surveyed rock wall in Sal Leo rock cliff (red dashed square corresponds to the area affected by block th detachments). b Comparison between March 7 2014-April 9th 2014 TLS scans: white oval showing the first monitored rock block detachment; th orange-yellow areas enhance rock wall sector characterized by displacements. c Comparison between March 7 2014-December 18th 2014 scans, enhancing the occurred detached rock block sectors (in blue); yellow ovals enhance the minor block detachments. d Correspondent sectors in optical image (black ovals enhance major detachments; dashed line delimits the rock wall displaced sector); (after Frodella et al., 2016) nd located in correspondence of rock wall sectors affected on February 2 2010, after a short-monitoring campaign by a widespread fracture network and block detach- the motorway was partially reopened, thanks to the ments (ovals 1–2 in Fig. 10c, d). structure stability assessment performed by means of the first GB-InSAR monitoring data (Figs. 11 and 12). Dur- Short-term GB-InSAR monitoring for emergency ing the mid-term monitoring campaign (lasted until th management: Santa Trada case study April 24 2010) two approaches for calculating the in- The Santa Trada landslide (Calabria Region, Southern terferograms and displacement maps were adopted: th Italy; Fig. 2) occurred on January 30 2009, after a period characterized by heavy rainfall (Del Ventisette et  Differential: the time span between the first and last al., 2011), putting at high risk a viaduct sector along the image composing the interferogram is kept constant A3 national motorway, and could have also dammed the (e.g. 1 day) and the interferograms represent sequential stream below. It is a 100 m high, 90 m wide translational moments (e.g. day-by-day displacement). This approach slide (estimated thickness is between 3 and 5 m), devel- is used in particular for kinematic analyses as it permits oped in sand and conglomerates originating from meta- to identify acceleration phases because it enables to morphic weathered rocks (Fig. 11). For safety reasons evaluate two comparable time periods. this tract of the motorway was closed to traffic and on  Incremental: the first image is taken as a reference st 31 January a ground-based had been installed. Already and the interferograms are all calculated between the reference and the last image; in this way the time span is increasing with time. This approach is Table 3 Detected detached rock blocks and calculated volumes useful to evaluate the total cumulative displacement (after Frodella et al., 2016) 3 and to measure the displacement even in the slower Detached sector Calculated volume (m ) Time interval (2014) portions of the landslide. Furthermore, it is suitable 1 94 April 9th - June 11th for spatial analyses as the total extension of the 2 66 June 11th - December 18th unstable area can be assessed. On the other hand, long time intervals can cause phase ambiguity and loss of coherence. For the Santa Trada landslide, thanks to the displacement maps provided by the GB-InSAR system, it was possible to 7 1.5 delimitate the area affected by the movement (Fig. 11) and to identify some temporal phases characterized by different Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 14 of 23 Fig. 10 GBInSAR and TLS data integration. a San Leo rock wall March 7th 2014 – 2015 3D GB-InSAR cumulative displacement map (after Frodella th et al., 2016). b Thermogram acquired during April 9 2014 (after Barla et al., 2016); c correspondent photo (seepage sectors 1-4 are characterized by lower temperatures, due to local rock wall surface cooling caused by water evaporation) activity levels and to assess the risk scenarios temporal evo- monitoring activities for different landslide types lution (Fig. 12). (Fig. 13). A brief overview of applications (individual or com- Discussion bined technique) has been shown through some selected The reliability and effectiveness of the described remote case studies in section 3. In this section the abovemen- sensing techniques, as well as their synergic use, have tioned case studies are discussed in order to show, for been enhanced, providing a wide range of surveying and the employed techniques their main advantages and st Fig. 11 a Photo of the Santa Trada landslide, 1 February 2009; b cumulated displacement map calculated using GB-InSAR data with incremental approach spanning from 2nd February to 29th April 2009. The letters indicate the corresponding points between the two images (after Del Ventisette et al., 2011) Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 15 of 23 Fig. 12 Displacement and velocity time series of Santa Trada landslide obtained from the GB-InSAR system (after Del Ventisette et al., 2011) limitations and the possibility of a synergic use for differ- competing satellite operators entering the market, prices ent applications (Table 4). constantly decrease. A main advantage of optical data- sets is their synergetic values for several other applica- Spaceborne platforms tions such as: With the increasing large constellation of VHR satellites, imagery can be acquired timely after major landslide  post-disaster damage assessment; events and with daily temporal resolution at nearly glo-  updating of land cover and landslide inventory maps; bal coverage. The main advantage of VHR imagery is the  corresponding archives are often available over a great density of spatial information, whereas, with more given area. Fig. 13 Schematised workflow of the applied techniques showing the different degree of connection between the advanced products (coming from the available instrumentation) which are the basis for addressing the various landslides issues Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 16 of 23 Table 4 Overview of advantages/limitations of the employed methods with respect to landslide type and analysis context Remote sensing Case Instability Type of Advantages Drawbacks technique study process type application Optical VHR Giampilieri Shallow Landslide i) great density of spatial information, i) high cost; ii) on-demand acquisition; (OOA) soil slides – mapping ii) numerous platforms, iii) high spatial, iii) cloud cover; iv) acquisition limited Debris flows temporal and spectral resolution, to daylight, v) OOA thresholds iv) OOA approaches able to delineate definition between changed and areas affected by landslides unchanged areas Spaceborne SAR Nebrodi e Complex, Landslide i) good cost/benefit ratio, ii) coverage i) detection of fast movements; (PSI) Peloritani rotational and detection of wide areas; iii) millimeter accuracy; ii) monitoring in deferred time; deep-seated and mapping iv) availability of historical archives iii) presence of dense vegetation landslides (since 1992); v) day-night and all cover; iv) geometric distortions; weather acquisition. v) unusable to detect N-S oriented landslides. UAV-DP Ricasoli Shallow Landslide i) Low cost, rapid survey; ii) high repeatability; i) Restrictive UAV flight regulations; landslides characterization iii) high resolution data; iv) avoidance ii) skilled operator required; and mapping of shadowing effects. iii) negative effect of vegetation on the point cloud. TLS - IRT Elba Rock slides Landslide i) Favorable logistic conditions (up-close TLS: i) point cloud resolution related island risk scenario survey); ii) Rapid 3D surface, geo-structural to scenario distance; ii) negative assessment and geo-mechanical survey; iii) detailed effect of vegetation on the point unstable masses detection-volume cloud. IRT: iii) scenario thermal calculation. contrasts related to slope orientation-roughness and solar radiation (daily/seasonal variations). GB-InSAR - San Leo Rock fall Landslide i) Multi-system approach for wide range i) Intrinsic limitation of each adopted TLS - IRT long-term of instability process detection and analysis; technique (L.O.S, range of detectable monitoring GB-InSAR: ii) millimeter accuracy; velocity, repetition time). IRT-TLS: iii) continuous monitoring. iv) day-night ii) only periodical check. GB-InSAR: and all weather acquisition. iii) uncapability for detecting rapid and perpendicular displacements with respect to the L.O.S.; iv) ambiguity in locating displacements for overhanging- slope sectors. GB-InSAR Santa Translational Landslide i) Rapid installation; ii) day-night and all i) System loss of coherence, spatial Trada slide Emergency weather acquisition; iii) early warning and temporal decorrelation due management and rapid assessment of risk scenario. to vegetation cover; ii) not favorable alignment between system L.O.S. and landslide movement direction (only 15–35% of displacement detected). A greater diversity of platforms increases the chance In many cases, it might also be possible to account for to acquire cloud free imagery of a given area with a spe- sensor and illumination differences by cross calibration cified time frame; nevertheless atmospheric conditions and image transformation. However, only limited accur- remain an important factor that, depending on the cli- acy can be expected from such approaches in situation mate zone and the season, may delay the acquisition of where other similar surface changes such as deforest- suitable images. For these reasons, satellite tasked for ation or barren fields are present in the same scene. The images with sub-meter resolution can still be associated selection of an appropriate threshold to distinguish with considerable costs. Higher spatial, spectral (e.g. between changed and unchanged areas remains as a WorldView-2) and temporal resolutions strongly in- general difficulty for the application of pixel-based crease the computational load for the storage and ana- methods. Further problems are usually encountered lysis of the datasets, especially for mapping over wide when pixel-base change detection is applied on VHR areas. This can considerably slow down the analysis and imagery because of the higher spectral variance and may need for further investments in hardware and soft- stronger impacts of small co-registration errors. Due to ware. This is closely related to the desirable exploitation a better exploitation of the spatial context within remote of spatial context which is typically computational inten- sensing images, OOA approaches generally yield better sive. Pixel-based change detection (typically image differ- results than could be achieved with per pixel analyses. It encing) is relatively easy to apply and can be accurate has been demonstrated that OOA rule sets are not only when most of surface changes are caused by landslides. capable to accurately delineate areas affected by Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 17 of 23 landslides but can also be used to distinguish among dif-  The high density of benchmarks (up to several ferent landslide types (Martha et al. 2010). In the study hundreds per km ). area of Giampilieri (Lu et al., 2011) the OOA approach  The use of “natural” benchmarks not requiring has proved an effective tool to map rapid landslides, and deployment and maintenance. support the local authorities and civil protection depart-  The possibility of geo-locating the benchmarks with ment for the emergency management. For both the ob- a precision in the order of 1–5 meters. tained number and spatial extent of detected landslides,  The availability of the extremely valuable ESA the results show a lower producer’s accuracy than user’s (European Space Agency) ERS archive spanning accuracy: specifically, ca. 31% of all manually mapped about 20 years, which enables to carry out landslides were omitted in the OOA based detection. retrospective studies. This indicates an overestimation of false positives during their classification, accompanied with an underestima- Recent studies proved the feasibility of combining (stitch- tion of true positives obtained from the membership ing) SAR data acquired by different sensors (e.g., ENVISAT function of the selected samples. Further improvements with ERS, or RADARSAT-1 with RADARSAT-2), despite should include a more accurate definition of these slight differences in critical image acquisition parameters. thresholds for classifying false positives and a more care- Regular revisiting time in the order of 20–40 days (up to ful selection of representative samples. 6 days with the new Sentinel-1 ESA mission). As discussed by Colesanti & Wasowski (2006), due to On the whole, the case studies described in the scien- the inherent limitations of current space observation sys- tific literature highlight that with reference to the detec- tems and relevant data processing techniques, the prac- tion/mapping of slow-moving landslide phenomena the tical applicability of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry main benefits regard: (PSI) approaches is usually limited to two landslide classes of the Cruden & Varnes (1996) classification: extremely  the definition of the boundaries of already detected slow and very slow movements (vel < 16 mm/year and mass movements; 16 mm/year ≤ vel < 1.6 m/year, respectively). These phe-  the definition of the states of activity; nomena are suitable for analysis based on PSI techniques,  the detection of previously unmapped unstable areas. as long as they evolve with very low displacement rates (few tens of centimeters per year) and their velocities do However, several limiting factors need to be properly not exceed the intrinsic limits of the techniques (related taken into account (Colesanti and Wasowski, 2006): to the radar wavelength, revisiting time of the platform and the spatial density of measurement points). Moreover,  Displacement data represent the one-dimensional landslide-induced displacements, detectable through PSI projection along the LOS projection of a deformation techniques, are restricted to “coherent” landslides with that can actually occur in all three dimensions. very slow dynamics, i.e. with little internal deformation  The ambiguity of phase measurements implies the such as deep-seated deformations (García-Davalillo et al, impossibility to track correctly (i.e., unambiguously) 2014), creep (Cascini et al., 2010), and, in some cases, the relative LOS displacement between two slides (Raspini et al., 2015b) roto-translational slides scatterers exceeding λ/4 (=1.4 cm for ERS) within (Tofani et al. 2013a, b), rockslide (Lauknes et al., 2010), one revisiting time interval (35 days for ERS), i.e. complex landslides (Bardi et al., 2014), slow earth flows approximately 14.5 cm/yr. In practice, it is extremely (Herrera et al., 2011) and badlands (Herrera et al., 2009). difficult to detect LOS displacement rates exceeding InSAR data can provide useful information about pre- 8 – 10 cm/yr in the presence of low density of stable event movements, often characterized by low displace- scatterers, such as in the case of landslides where ment rates (few cm/year) persisting over long time periods topography and vegetation introduce a limitation in (Bardi et al., 2016; Frodella et al., 2016). This deformation the number of detected scatterers. This limits the regime is quite different to failure events, which occur use of multi-interferometric approaches only to suddenly and may produce ground displacements of sev- landslides ranging from extremely to very slow eral meters (Raspini et al., 2015a). phenomena according to the velocity classification With reference to landslide detection/mapping the of Cruden and Varnes (1996). most advantageous aspects of the multipass D-InSAR  Limited versatility in terms of (a) positioning of the approach are (Colesanti and Wasowski, 2006): measurement points and (b) revisiting time. Both factors (a) and (b) cannot be optimized as degrees of The cost-effectiveness for wide-area (hundreds and freedom while planning an analysis. thousands of km ) applications, typical of spaceborne  Finally, it is still difficult to forecast the coherent remotely sensed data. pixel density in rural areas without carrying out at Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 18 of 23 least several processing steps on a significant analyses. In San Leo an integrated use of GB-InSAR, number (15–20) of SAR images. TLS and IRT has been applied for landslide monitoring (section 3.2.2). The GB-InSAR one year monitoring UAV and Ground-based methods campaign allowed analysing the short-term behavior of In terrestrial applications it is still necessary to perform the 2014 rockfall event deposits (Frodella et al., 2016). A time-consuming and hazardous activities, such as pla- general stability of the town monitored structures and cing ground control points on the analysed scenario analysed rock wall was assessed, and 4 critical sectors (Stavroulaki et al., 2016), if not supported by other tech- were detected in the monitored area by means of 2D dis- nologies (Forlani et al., 2014). In this framework UAV placement maps, while 7 acceleration events were de- photogrammetry has the following advantages: real-time, tected from the GB-InSAR control points time series. flexibility, high-resolution, low costs, as it allows the The accuracy in locating a GBInSAR control point is collection of information in dangerous environments controlled by the system azimuth and range resolutions, without risk (Chang-chun et al. 2011). Furthermore, the which are in terms related to the distance between the recent development of new algorithms for digital photo- sensor and the backscattering objects. Regarding the San grammetry, based on Structure from Motion (SfM) Leo case study, the investigated rock wall has a subverti- (Westoby et al. 2012) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) cal geometry which in some portions shows overhanging (James and Robson, 2012) techniques, allows obtaining sectors; in this framework, the GB-InSAR system instal- high-resolution 3D models, even by using compact and lation frontal with respect to the surveyed scenario, lead consumer-grade digital cameras (Lucieer et al., 2013; to a different range resolution of scenario sectors located Rossi et al., 2016). In the case of landslide monitoring at different heights along the surveyed rock wall (Fig. 10). and characterization, acquiring aerial imagery using The obtained 3D displacement map in fact shows an drones permits to overcome some limits of ground- ambiguity in locating deformation sectors along the rock based photogrammetric surveying, such as shadowing wall height; therefore, in this specific case study sectors effects, which can drastically reduce the accuracy of the characterized by displacements are displayed as vertical resulting digital models. zones instead of pixel clusters located at the cliff bottom The synergic use of TLS and IRT has been applied at (Fig. 9). The 3D GB-InSAR displacement map was also Elba island case study (section 3.2.1). The TLS survey used for a comparison between TLS and GB-InSAR dis- yielded a detailed 3-D remote structural, geometrical, placement data. The difference in the recorded displace- and geomechanical characterization of the investigated ments detected by the two monitoring systems in rock masses. In particular, a semiautomatic geomechani- correspondence of the detected rock block toppling is cal survey made possible the automatic calculation of six related to the different displacement components of the of the ten parameters suggested by ISRM (1985) for the recorded movements, due to the two different monitor- quantitative description of discontinuities (orientation, ing systems LOSs. The analyzed rock cliff is character- spacing, persistence, roughness, number of sets, and ized by complex geomorphological and geometric block size). A total of 1359 planes were recognized and features, different ongoing landslide processes with vari- clustered according to seven different discontinuity sets, ous state of activity. Each single employed monitoring adding two more discontinuity sets to the five detected technique can be considered not adequate for their in- by means of the traditional field survey, therefore trinsic limitations. The combined use of the abovemen- improving the rock mass structural-geomechanical tioned techniques provided an effective monitoring characterization (Fig. 7). The obtained TLS 3-D products system for landslide characterization and state of activity also provided reference morphological maps useful for monitoring, thanks to the different instrument charac- both further detailed field inspections and the design of teristics (LOS, range of detectable velocity, repetition possible future restoration works. The proposed ap- time), which allowed to overcome the limitations of each proach proved to be an effective tool in the field of emer- single employed technique. Compared to GB-InSAR, gency management, when it is often urgently necessary TLS does not suffer from problematics such as loss of and gather all the required information (characterization coherence, decorrelation, and displacement detection and mapping) as fast as possible in dangerous capability only along the sensor LOS; on the other hand, environments. GB-InSAR single measure can reach sub-millimeter ac- The investigated area showed favorable logistic condi- curacy, while using a TLS it is not possible to easily de- tions; in fact, the roadway at the foot of the investigated tect displacements smaller than 10 mm. Therefore, TLS rock slope was fundamental in carrying out up-close the was considered more suitable for the detection, field inspections, the TLS, and the TIR surveys. Had this characterization and volume assessment of the minor condition not existed, the point cloud resolution would rockfall events affecting the newly formed cliff (too fast not probably have been high enough for such detailed phenomena to be detected by means of the GB-InSAR Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 19 of 23 system). In both the abovementioned case studies, the data that are accurate but necessarily limited to a small capability to remotely collect the scenario surface number of control points (Teza et al., 2008). Currently temperature at a detailed spatial resolution proved that landslide analysis operators can select the most proper IRT can be usefully applied in the field landslide ana- methodology with respect to their specific needs, which lyses. Nevertheless, IRT alone is insufficient for a can be related to the different civil protection phases, complete landslide characterization; in order to obtain a technical issues, financial budget, environmental factors more accurate interpretation of the results IRT could be and specific features of the studied instability phenom- more profitably used as an ancillary low cost technique ena. The selection of the proper methodology to be through the integration with other ground based remote adopted can be related to technical issues, economic sensing techniques, such as TLS and GB-InSAR. Future budget, environmental factors and specific feature of the developments should include the application of fixed landslides to be monitored. Because of a growing demand IRT installations for gathering continuous, high- for effective Civil Protection procedures in pre- and post- resolution, real-time data to be compared with those of disaster initiatives in landslide-prone areas, the purpose of the integrated GB-InSAR and TLS monitoring systems. researchers in the near future is to improve the investiga- Furthermore, the portability of modern thermal cameras tive capacity of the such instruments and consequently to and the rapid evolution of IRT technology opens up fu- extend their fields of application. In fact, landslides ture scenarios of automated inspections, which could be managing in order to reduce vulnerability is currently quickened by using remotely controlled UAV platforms. considered more feasible (in terms of faster and extensive The Santa Trada landslide offers a good example of GB- results) than governing all the natural conditions leading InSAR application in emergency conditions in order to to instability, such as the spatial distribution of geology assess the risk impending on a critical infrastructure. In and geomorphology and the climatic influence. Santa Trada area, a GB-InSAR device was promptly in- Authors’ contributions stalled in order to understand the temporal evolution of NC conceived and structured the whole manuscript. He also supervised the a landslide that seriously threatened the functionality writing, especially during the organization of contributions coming from different techniques. WF, SM, EI were responsible for the preparation of the and the safety of a strategic road infrastructure. This ground-based sections. VT, AC, FR, PL were responsible for the preparation of technique worked with all weather conditions and with a the spaceborne sections. GR and LT were responsible for the preparation of continuous surveillance for all the time of emergency, allow- the UAV sections. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. ing the rapid assessment of the overall dynamics of the in- Competing interests stable slope and related risks scenarios. This application was The authors declare that they have no competing interests. among the first to demonstrate the full effectiveness of this Author details system in managing landslides emergencies since it greatly Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 facilitated the intervention operations by designated author- 2 Florence, Italy. College of Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Tongji University, ities that aimed to restore a normal service in the shortest Shanghai 200092, China. possible time after a precautionary closure of the motorway. Received: 17 November 2016 Accepted: 22 February 2017 It also granted the possibility to acquire data during precipi- tations, which represent the most critical moment in stabil- References ity terms; indeed, usually traditional monitoring instruments Abellán, A., J.M. Vilaplana, and J. Martínez. 2006. Application of a long-range are not able to work in such conditions and to provide such terrestrial laser scanner to a detailed rockfall study at Vall de Núria (Eastern useful information real-time, since they normally require a pyrenees, Spain). Engineering Geology 88: 136–148. Abellán, A., J.M. Vilaplana, J. Calvet, D. Garcıa-Selles, and E. Asensio. 2011. 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Modelling and strength evaluation of masonry bridges using terrestrial photogrammetry and finite elements.. Advances in Engineering Software. Submit your manuscript to a Strozzi, T., U. Wegmuller, H.R. Keusen, K. Graf, and A. Wiesmann. 2006. Analysis of journal and benefi t from: the terrain displacement along a funicular by SAR interferometry. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 3: 15–18. 7 Convenient online submission Sturzenegger, M., and D. Stead. 2009. Quantifying discontinuity orientation and 7 Rigorous peer review persistence on high mountain rock slopes and large landslides using terrestrial remote sensing techniques. Natural Hazards and Earth System 7 Immediate publication on acceptance Sciences 9: 267–287. 7 Open access: articles freely available online Tapete, D., N. Casagli, G. Luzi, R. Fanti, G. Gigli, and D. Leva. 2013. 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Spaceborne, UAV and ground-based remote sensing techniques for landslide mapping, monitoring and early warning

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Environment; Environment, general; Earth Sciences, general; Geography, general; Geoecology/Natural Processes; Natural Hazards; Environmental Science and Engineering
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Abstract

Background: The current availability of advanced remote sensing technologies in the field of landslide analysis allows for rapid and easily updatable data acquisitions, improving the traditional capabilities of detection, mapping and monitoring, as well as optimizing fieldwork and investigating hazardous or inaccessible areas, while granting at the same time the safety of the operators. Among Earth Observation (EO) techniques in the last decades optical Very High Resolution (VHR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery represent very effective tools for these implementations, since very high spatial resolution can be obtained by means of optical systems, and by the new generations of sensors designed for interferometric applications. Although these spaceborne platforms have revisiting times of few days they still cannot match the spatial detail or time resolution achievable by means of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Digital Photogrammetry (DP), and ground-based devices, such as Ground-Based Interferometric SAR (GB-InSAR), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and InfraRed Thermography (IRT), which in the recent years have undergone a significant increase of usage, thanks to their technological development and data quality improvement, fast measurement and processing times, portability and cost-effectiveness. In this paper the potential of the abovementioned techniques and the effectiveness of their synergic use is explored in the field of landslide analysis by analyzing various case studies, characterized by different slope instability processes, spatial scales and risk management phases. Results: Spaceborne optical Very High Resolution (VHR) and SAR data were applied at a basin scale for analysing shallow rapid-moving and slow-moving landslides in the emergency management and post- disaster phases, demonstrating their effectiveness for post-disaster damage assessment, landslide detection and rapid mapping, the definition of states of activity and updating of landslide inventory maps. The potential of UAV-DP for very high resolution periodical checks of instability phenomena was explored at a slope-scale in a selected test site; two shallow landslides were detected and characterized, in terms of areal extension, volume and temporal evolution. The combined use of GB-InSAR, TLS and IRT ground based methods, was applied for the surveying, monitoring and characterization of rock slides, unstable cliffs and translational slides. These applications were evaluated in the framework of successful rapid risk scenario evaluation, long term monitoring and emergency management activities. All of the results were validated by means of field surveying activities. (Continued on next page) * Correspondence: stefano.morelli@unifi.it Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence, Italy Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 2 of 23 (Continued from previous page) Conclusion: The attempt of this work is to give a contribution to the current state of the art of advanced spaceborne and ground based techniques applied to landslide studies, with the aim of improving and extending their investigative capacity in the framework of a growing demand for effective Civil Protection procedures in pre- and post-disaster initiatives. Advantages and limitations of the proposed methods, as well as further fields of applications are evaluated for landslide-prone areas. Keywords: Landslides, Remote Sensing, SAR data, Optical VHR imagery, GB-InSAR, UAV, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, Infrared Thermography Background imagery (Singhroy, 1995; Fruneau et al., 1996; Landslides play an important role in the evolution and Massonnet and Feigl, 1998; Kimura and Yamaguchi, shaping of aerial/subaerial landscapes (Brunetti et al., 2000; Hilley et al., 2004; Hanssen, 2005; Colesanti and 2015), representing a major cause of loss of life, injuries, Wasowski, 2006; Meisina et al., 2008; Herrera et al., property damage, socio-economic disruption and envir- 2009; 2011; Bardi et al., 2014; Crosetto et al., 2016) to onmental degradation (WP/WLI, 1993; Canuti et al., study slow moving landslides. The ability to make nu- 2004; Petley et al., 2005; Petley, 2012), especially if they merous point measurements of displacement over the are associated with other natural hazards (like earth- landslide body allows one the detection and mapping of quakes, volcanic eruptions, meteorological events and the actively deforming slopes (e.g. Righini et al., 2012), wildfires). Because of such habitual combinations, reli- the characterization and monitoring of landslide mech- able numbers for the social impact only due to landslides anism (Tofani et al., 2013b) and, through the analysis of are difficult to obtain on a global scale and the economic time series of deformation, the identification of velocity losses are certainly underestimated (or not quoted at changes in the landslide evolution (Berti et al., 2013), as all). This general condition often contributes to reducing well as the modeling of large slope instability (Berardino the concern individuals and authorities have about land- et al., 2003). Advanced terrestrial remote sensing tech- slide risk (Kjekstad, and Highland 2009). Although in nologies, such as GB-InSAR, TLS, IRT and digital photo- most of the disaster-prone areas the consideration of the grammetry (DP) are nowadays applied in the field of social-cultural and socio-economic conditions in relation slope instability detection, mapping and monitoring, for to their physical safety is still very confused, the applica- short/long term landslide management (real time, near tion of appropriate technologies for landslide detection, real time and deferred time) (Lillesand et al., 2014). monitoring and early warning systems are increasingly They are characterized by operational efficiency and considered crucial by local authorities in reducing the accuracy of data not reached by traditional methods: risk of landslide disasters. EO from space has found high-resolution acquisition, multifunction versatility, many uses in the natural sciences, but it is only in the device portability, low cost sensors, easy and fast last decades that technological advances have also data processing. Such equipment allows for system- extended to landslides analysis (Mantovani et al., 1996; atic and easily updatable acquisitions of data that Ferretti et al., 2001; Canuti et al., 2004; Metternicht et may also enhance the implementation of effective al., 2005; van Westen et al., 2008; Casagli et al., 2010; early warning systems at slope scale. In this paper Martha et al., 2010; Guzzetti et al., 2012; Lu et al., 2012; the potential of the abovementioned remote sensing Tofani et al., 2013a). Nowadays rapid advances are mak- techniques (both spaceborne and ground-based), and ing EO techniques more effective for landslide detection, their applications for landslide detection and mapping, monitoring and hazard assessment. Applica- mapping are evaluated. tions are originating from nearly all types of sensors The presented techniques are described by means available today (Tofani et al. 2013b). Rapid develop- of their main technical features and applicability in ments in this field are fostered by the very high spatial different observed scenarios, typology of landslide resolution obtained by optical systems (currently in the (Cruden and Varnes, 1996; Hungr et al., 2014) and order of tens of centimeters) and by the launching of geomorphological setting. Some case studies are also SAR sensors, purposely built for interferometric applica- shown and discussed in order to exhibit good tions with revisiting times of few days, such as TerraSAR practices in landslide characterization and prediction X and COSMO-SkyMed (Tofani et al., 2013a). Landslide by means of different techniques and sensors in syn- detection and mapping benefit from both optical ergic action. The main advantages and disadvantages (Hervas et al. 2003, Cheng et al., 2004, Marcelino et al., of the presented techniques are described in the text 2009, Martha and Kerle 2012, Lu et al., 2011) and radar and in a tabular form. Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 3 of 23 Methods: Applied techniques theoretical models based on the panchromatic-derived spatial infor- principles: a state of the art mation (Eyers et al., 1998; Chini et al., 2011; Martha and Spaceborne platforms Kerle, 2012; Kurtz et al., 2014). The False Colour Compos- Optical VHR imagery ites (FCCs) of the VHR images are often used to discrim- The most important active optical satellites are reported inate lithologies or terrain having different characteristics in Fig. 1. Optical data are usually used for landslide (weathering, water content, vegetation cover) (Ciampalini detection and mapping through visual inspection or ana- et al., 2012; Lamri et al., 2016). lytical methods (Metternicht et al., 2005; Fiorucci et al., The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 2011; Parker et al. 2014; Guzzetti et al., 2012; Mondini derived from optical images, is another index widely et al., 2014). For example, several optical derivative prod- used to map landslides by means of evaluating the ucts (panchromatic, pan sharpen, false colour composits, vegetation cover rate (Lin et al., 2004). Higher values of rationing) can help in visual interpretation for landslide NDVI can be related to a wide vegetation cover, whereas mapping (Casagli et al., 2005; Marcelino et al., 2009; Ma lower values can represents areas affected by landslides. et al. 2016). In image fusion procedures, multispectral Furthermore, multispectral images can be enhanced to channels, characterized by a coarser spatial resolution detect landslides by means of analytical methods based than the panchromatic, are downscaled through analytical on the spectral characteristics of the land surface and Fig. 1 Active optical and SAR satellites for landslide mapping and monitoring. The numbers on the right of the figure report the revisting time of each satellite. RCM: Radarsat constellation mission, CSK: COSMO-Skymed, CSK–SG: COSMO-Skymed Second Generation Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 4 of 23 automatic approaches focus on the classification of accuracy theoretically better than 0.1 mm/yr. Each image pixels (Martha et al., 2010; Mondini et al., 2011). measurement is referred temporally and spatially to a Few studies have described the use of hyperspectral data unique reference image and to a stable reference point. for recognition and classification of landslides based on MIT analysis is designed to generate time-series of Earth surface characteristics since most of the hyper- ground deformations for individual PS, assuming differ- spectral satellite sensors are still under development ent types of deformation models (e.g., linear, nonlinear (Scaioni et al., 2014). or hybrid). .In the field of landslide investigations the po- tential of SAR data has been exploited at different scales: SAR data from national (Adam et al., 2011) to regional (Meisina The family of SAR satellite sensors (Fig. 1) orbits the et al., 2008; 2013; Ciampalini et al. 2016a, b) basin (Lu Earth at an altitude ranging from 500 to 800 km, follow- et al., 2012) slope (Frodella et al., 2016) and building ing sun-synchronous, near-polar orbits, slightly inclined scale (Ciampalini et al., 2014; Bianchini et al., 2015; with respect of Earth meridians. The most commonly Nolesini et al., 2016), as well as in different phases of used bands in SAR applications are C-band (5–6 GHz, landslide response (Canuti et al., 2007) and Civil Protec- ~5,6 cm wavelength), X-band (8–12 GHz, ~3,1 cm tion practice (Farina et al., 2008). Other application wavelength) and L-band (1–2 GHz ~23 cm wavelength) fields include subsidence phenomena (Raspini et al., with a temporal resolution depending on the satellite 2012; 2014; Rosi et al. 2014; 2016), earthquakes (Bűrg- revisiting time (Fig. 1). A SAR image is composed of mann et al., 2005; Sousa et al., 2010) and volcanic activ- pixel characterized by amplitude and phase values. Phase ities (Hooper et al., 2004; Vilardo et al., 2010; Parker values of a single SAR image is partly depends on the et al., 2014). sensor-target distance and is the key element to detect ground displacement. SAR Interferometry is the tech- UAV and Ground-based methods nique focused on the measure changes of signal phase UAV-DP over time through the analysis of at least two SAR im- DP is a well-established technique for acquiring dense ages (Fruneau et al., 1996; Singhroy et al., 1998). A suit- 3D geometric information in slopes from stereoscopic able approach to exploit phase variation between two overlaps of photo sequences captured by a calibrated consecutive radar images acquired over the same target digital camera (Chandler, 1999; Lane et al., 2000; is the Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) Sturzenegger and Stead, 2009; Zhang et al., 2004). Dur- (Bamler and Hartl, 1998; Rosen et al., 2000). Geomet- ing past few years, with the rapid development of DP rical and temporal decorrelation and atmospheric effects techniques and the availability of ease-using, focusable caused by the variation of the phase reflectivity value of and relatively cheap digital cameras, this technique some radar targets reduce the reliability of the D-InSAR gained wide applications in many fields, such as 3D technique (Berardino et al., 2002). In order to overcome building reconstruction, heritage protection and land- these limitations InSAR-based information can be en- slides studies (Grussenmeyer et al., 2008; Scaioni et al., hanced through multi-temporal interferometric tech- 2015; Fan et al., 2016). In this latter field, depending on niques (MIT), based on analysis of long stacks of co- the camera lens-setting, DP can be divided into two registered SAR imagery (Ferretti et al. 2001; Crosetto et fields of activity (Gopi, 2007): far range, usually more al, 2016). In the past years, several MIT approaches have exploited for landslide characterization and general map- been developed such as: the Permanent Scatterers Inter- ping (Wolter et al., 2014), and close range, having a wide ferometry, named PSInSAR™ (Ferretti et al., 2011; Cole- use in high precision metrological and deformation santi et al., 2003), the SqueeSAR™ (Ferretti et al., 2011), monitoring applications (Cardenal et al., 2008; Scaioni et the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers StaMPS al., 2015). More recently the combination of rapid devel- (Hooper et al., 2004; Hooper et al., 2007), the Interfero- opment of low cost and small UAVs and the improve- metric Point Target Analysis IPTA (Werner et al., 2003; ments of conventional sensors in terms of cost and size, Strozzi et al., 2006), the Coherence Pixel Technique led to new, promising scenarios in environmental remote CPT (Mora et al., 2006), the Small Baseline Subset SBAS sensing, surface modelling and monitoring (Colomina and (Lanari et al., 2004; Berardino et al., 2003), the Stable Molina, 2014; James and Robson, 2012; Remondino et al., Point Network SPN (Casu et al., 2006; Crosetto et al., 2011; Eisenbeiss and Sauerbier, 2011). 2008), the Persistent Scatterer Pairs PSP (Herrera et al., 2011) and the Quasi PS technique QPS (Costantini et GB-InSAR al., 2008). Signal analysis of a network of coherent radar GB-InSAR system consists of a computer-controlled targets (Permanent Scatterers, PS) allows estimating oc- microwave transceiver, characterized by a transmitting curred displacement, acquisitions by acquisition. Line of and receiving antennas, which by moving along a mech- Sight (LOS) deformation rate can be estimated with an anical linear rail is capable to synthesize a linear aperture Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 5 of 23 along the azimuth direction (Tarchi et al., 1997; Rudolf applications (Abellán et al. 2006; 2011; Jaboyedoff et al., et al., 1999; Pieraccini et al., 2002). The obtained SAR 2007; Ferrero et al., 2009; Oppikofer et al. 2009; Gigli et image contains amplitude and phase information of the al. 2014a, b, c). Thanks to the high resolution of the observed scenario backscattered echo in the acquiring laser scanning survey it is also possible to extract even time interval (from few to less than 1 min with the most the smallest features, such as the structural crack pattern, modern systems) (Luzi et al., 2004; 2010; Monserrat et the crack opening direction (Gigli et al., 2009; 2012), and al., 2014). In a GB-InSAR interferogram the displace- the orientation of critical discontinuities within the rock ment obtained from the phase difference calculation can mass (Gigli and Casagli, 2011; Gigli et al., 2014b). Further- be represented in 2D maps, in which the chromatic scale more, this technique is capable of measuring ground 3D covers a total value corresponding to half of the temporal displacements by comparing sequential datasets wavelength used. However, since the phase is periodic, it of the same scenario (Rosser et al., 2005; Abellán et al., cyclically assumes the same values crating image- 2011). The intensity data can also provide some informa- interpreting problems. This issue, known as phase ambi- tion about the type of material and the soil moisture con- guity, and can be solved through interpretation based on tent of the targets, which can add information regarding field geological knowledge or by adopting apposite phase the landslide main geomorphologic features (Voegtle et al., unwrapping algorithms (Ghiglia & Romero, 1994), which 2008; Franceschi et al., 2009). count the number of cycles performed by the wave obtaining cumulated displacement maps. Given the rela- IRT tive short distances at which GB-InSAR apparatuses IRT is the branch of remote sensing dealing with measuring usually operate (typically less than 3 km), they work in the radiant temperature of Earth’s surface features from a Ku band (1.67–2.5 cm). The main research applications distance (Spampinato et al. 2011). The product of an infra- of GB-InSAR soon became focused on slope monitoring red thermographic survey is a pixel matrix (thermogram), (Tarchi et al., 2003; Pieraccini et al., 2002; 2003), for civil collected through the thermal camera array detector (Mal- protection purposes (Del Ventisette et al., 2011; Intrieri et dague, 2001), which following the correction of the sensitive al., 2012; Bardi et al., 2014; 2016; Lombardi et al., 2016) parameters (object emissivity, path length, air temperature and, more recently, for mining safety (Farina et al., 2011; and humidity) represents a radiant temperature map of the Severin et al., 2014). Other fields include volcanoes moni- investigated object. The presence within the observed sur- toring (Di Traglia et al., 2013; 2014a; 2014b; Intrieri et al., face of fractures, subsurface voids, moisture and seepage 2013; Nolesini et al., 2013; Calvari et al., 2016), cultural zones, will influence the material thermal characteristics heritage sites (Tapete et al., 2013; Pratesi et al., 2015; (density, thermal capacity and conductivity) modifying its Nolesini et al., 2016; Frodella et al., 2016), glaciers and snow- heat transfer (Teza et al., 2012). Therefore, the presence of pack sinkholes (Intrieri et al., 2015). an inhomogeneity within the observed scenario will be dis- played in the corresponding radiant temperature map as an TLS irregular thermal pattern with respect to the surroundings A TLS device produces and emits a beam characterized (a “thermal anomaly”) (Frodella et al., 2014b). In recent years by a directional, coherent and in-phase electromagnetic IRT has undergone a significant increase of applications in radiation (Jaboyedoff et al., 2012). The laser scanner by the field of geosciences (Spampinato et al. 2011), neverthe- measuring with high accuracy (millimeter or centimeter) less in the study of slope instability processes it is still experi- the back-scattered laser signal, is capable of obtaining mentally used, except for a few interesting experimental the exact position of a mesh of points (point cloud), studies (Wu et al., 2005; Baroň et al. 2012; Frodella et al., characterized by (x, y, z) cartesian coordinates (Slob et 2014b). In particular, IRT (often coupled with laser scan- al., 2002; Frohlich and Mettenleiter, 2004; Turner et al., ning) is applied with the following purposes: i) obtain infor- 2006; Slob et al., 2007). The device high acquisition rate mation about the rock mass fracturing (Squarzoni et al. (up to hundreds of thousands points per second) makes 2008); ii) detect shallow surface weakness in rock walls the detailed 3D shape of the object available in a short (Teza et al. 2012); iii) perform rockfall/slide susceptibility as- operating time. By defining the coordinates of specific sessment (Gigli et al. 2014a, c; Teza et al. 2015); iv) map laser reflectors within the surveyed area through a Dif- ephemeral drainage patterns (Frodella et al., 2014a; 2015); v) ferential Global Positioning System in Real Time Kine- integrate traditional geo-structural and geomechanical sur- matic mode (DGPS-RTK; Morelli et al., 2012; Tapete et veys (Mineo et al., 2015; Mineo and Pappalardo 2016; Pap- al., 2015; Pazzi et al., 2016), it is possible to link the ob- palardo et al., 2016). tained high-resolution 3D surface digital model to a glo- bal reference system. In landslide studies TLS has been Results: Study area applications increasingly used for the geometrical and geostructural In this section, the potential of the presented techniques characterization and unstable rock cliffs monitoring and their synergic use is explored for the detection, Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 6 of 23 mapping, and monitoring of landslides, through various case (Ciampalini et al., 2014; Bardi et al., 2014; Bianchini studies characterized by different types and scales of instabil- et al., 2015; Ciampalini et al. 2015a, b; 2016a,b). ity phenomena, hazardous scenarios and operational modes (Fig. 2). The employed remote sensing systems are listed in Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) for mapping shallow Table 1. rapid-moving landslides: the Giampilieri case study The purpose of this case study is to introduce a new ap- Spaceborne platforms proach for a rapid mapping of newly-triggered landslides The study areas for spaceborne applications comprise using an objected-oriented change detection technique. two different mountain chain sectors (the Peloritani and The methodology aims at a semi-automatic and rapid the Nebrodi mountains; Sicily Island, Southern Italy; analysis with a minimum of operator involvement and Fig. 2), in which the geological features are characterized manual analysis steps. Compared to conventional by the typical features of recently uplifted areas, devel- approaches for landslide mapping, this approach benefits oped on a crystalline basement with steep slopes and from (i) an image segmentation with problem-specified shallow clayey soil cover. In the late afternoon of Octo- scale optimization, and (ii) a multi-temporal analysis at st ber 1 2009, an intense storm affected the area between object level with several systemized spectral and textural the Peloritani Mountains ridge and the Ionian coastline metrics. This procedure has been applied to the two of (Ciampalini et al., 2015a; Del Ventisette et al., 2012), the most damaged areas of Giampilieri, including a where the main villages are located. During the same training area (ca. 1.8 km ) for algorithm development, night, the persisting rainfall triggered more than 600 and a larger independent testing area (ca. 8.1 km ). The landslides, such as shallow soil slides and debris flows, latter allows the robustness and transferability of the al- on an area of about 50 km . The assessed number of gorithm (without any change of ruleset and threshold) fatalities caused by landslides and inundation was 37 and the corresponding accuracy to be assessed by com- (including 31 deaths and 6 missing persons), with parison with a manually mapped landslide inventory pre- 122 injured people and 2019 evacuated people pared from fieldworks and subsequent modifications (Ardizzone et al., 2012; Del Ventisette et al., 2012; from image interpretation. Two Quickbird images ac- th th Raspini et al., 2013); the worst damages were quired on September 6 2006 and October 8 2009, reported in the village of Giampilieri (Fig. 2). Fur- with 0.3% and zero cloud cover respectively, were used thermore, between 2009 and 2010, following heavy in the study (Table 1). The application with the optical and persisting heavy rainfall, several municipalities in data is based upon the OOA (Lu et al., 2011). OOA is the Nebrodi Mountains were strongly affected by mainly dealing with the measuring unit of ‘object’, which several complex, rotational and deep-seated land- can be defined as ‘individually resolvable entities located slides which damaged buildings and infrastructures within a digital image which are perceptually generated Fig. 2 a Landslide case studies location; b Giampilieri (debris flows); c Nebrodi area (complex landslides); d Ricasoli (shallow landslides); e Western Elba Island (unstable rock masses); f San Leo (collapsed rock cliff); g Santa Trada (translational slide) Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 7 of 23 Table 1 Technical features of the described remote sensing systems System type Optical VHR SAR GB-INSAR TLS UAV-DP IRT Satellite/Device Model Quickbird Envisat/Ers/Radarsat1/CSK Ellegi-LiSALab Riegl LMS-Z420i Canon FLIR SC620 Ixus 240hs Wavelenght VIS/N-IR C-band (5.6 cm) Ku band (≈1.7 cm) N-IR (0.74–1.4 μm) VIS LW-IR 0.4–0.9 μm X-band (3.1 cm) (0.39/0.74 μm) (7.5–13 μ) Revisiting time/ 1–3.5 days 35/24(days) ≈1/4 min 12000 pt/s 24frame/s 30frame/s Measurement rate 12 hours (at 40°latitude) Image spatial/resolution 2.4 m 20×5/10×5/ 0.3×0.75 cm 0.008° 4608 × 3456 pix 640×480 pix 1×1 (m) (at 100 m distance) Maximum distance/Range 450–482 km 772-774/782-785/ 3–4 km 800 m 150 m −40/500 °C 793/620 (km) N-E-ellipsoidic height/ 23 m (horizontal) 2-6-1.5 m(C-Band) <1 mm ± 10mm 1–5cm ± 2°C Accuracy 1-4-1.5 m (X band) from high-resolution pixel groups’ (Hay et al., 2003). approach (Ferretti et al., 2011). The SqueeSAR algorithm Detailed information on the methodology and the algo- has been applied to C-band SAR dataset acquired by rithm developed can be found in Lu et al. (2011). The ERS (08/09/1992 - 24/11/2000) and Envisat (22/01/ algorithm developed based on the training area was dir- 2003-20/05/2009) missions along ascending orbits. Fol- ectly applied in the testing area. lowing the approaches proposed by Farina et al. (2008) The final outputs for the testing area are shown in and Bianchini et al. (2012), deformation measurements Fig. 3: in order to evaluate the accuracy of this approach, extracted by means of SqueeSAR technique have been OOA-derived landslides were compared with a manually- coupled and integrated with thematic maps (topographic mapped landslide inventory. The accuracy assessment was and geological maps), optical data (ortophoto, optical carried out for the number and the spatial extent of satellite VHR images and multi-temporal aerial photos) mapped landslides. For the spatial extent of landslides a and available landslides inventory maps, in order to user’s accuracy of 75.9% and a producer’saccuracy of identify the areas characterized by high hydro-geological 69.9% were achieved. In terms of the number of land- hazard (hotspot mapping), related to the occurrence of slides, user’s and producer’s accuracies of 81.8 and 69.5%, extremely and very slow moving landslide (according to respectively, were reached. the classification of Cruden & Varnes, 1996). Twenty-six sites have been identified, for which landslides have been Detection and mapping of slow-moving landslides with SAR detected and mapped (Fig. 4). On the basis of available data: the Sicily case studies multi–interferometric data these sites were assessed as Spaceborne SAR analysis of ground deformation in the the most critical in terms of hydro-geological hazard, Peloritani (nearby the Giampilieri village) and Nebrodi both for the type of instability detected and/or the extent area (Fig. 2) was performed using the SqueeSAR of the mapped phenomena and/or the measured Fig. 3 The used Quickbird imagery in the optical VHR analysis of Giampilieri area (Peloritani mountains): a pre-event QuickBird imagery; b post-event QuickBird imagery (false color 4-3-2); c The result of OOA landslide mapping in the independent testing area (yellow areas = mapped shallow landslides) Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 8 of 23 Fig. 4 Location of the twenty-six sites in the Nebrodi area which are characterized by high hydro-geological risk (hotspot mapping) according to the D-InSAR analysis. In the inset the landslide mapping of the village of Croce is reported deformation velocities and/or the presence of elements After the 2009 and 2010 events that affected the Nebrodi at risk. In the inset of Fig. 4 the hotspot analysis for the Mountains, the SqueeSAR technique was applied to area of the village of Croce (identified with number 9) is characterize the triggered hillslope phenomena both at the reported. The area is located on the right bank of the basin and at the local scale (Fig. 5). At the basin scale, Guidomandri creek and is characterized by the presence SqueeSAR PSI data was applied to update the available of several elements at risk, including, beside the village Landslide Inventory Map (LIM) including information on itself, isolated buildings and minor settlements. Pre- typology and state of activity of each identified landslide. existing landslide inventory maps do not report slope The updating procedure has been performed using: (i) radar instability in the study area. interpretation of four different available SAR datasets; (ii) The SqueeSAR results also show a large sector of the photo-interpretation of 1:33000 scale aerial photographs slope characterized by a displacement with velocity ran- flown in 1954, 1955 and 2005; and (iii) field surveys. InSAR ging from 1.6 to 4.8 mm/yr Envisat dataset (2003–2009). displacement measurements were acquired in different pe- Photo-interpretation of stereoscopic colour images riods (2006–2009, RADARSAT-1 scenes and 2011–2012, (1:3500 scale) and analysis of information provided by COSMO-SkyMed images). Considering the limitation of the SqueeSAR results allow to detect and map a large com- adopted technique, the updating of the pre-existing LIM plex system of active continuous slides affecting the area. was limited to the extremely slow and very slow moving Such deformation rates do not pose threat to population, landslides (faster phenomena have been excluded due to but can cause, persisting for many years, damages to their rapid kinematics). buildings and manmade infrastructures. Cracks and The new LIM (Fig. 5) includes 566 events: 15 (2.7%) damages have been surveyed during field validation, rockfalls and topples, 136 (24.0%) complex landslides, which also helped to confirm the presence and the 188 (33.2%) flows and 227 (40.1%) slides, covering an extension of the active movements through the identifi- area of 74.1 km . The comparison between the pre- cation of tension cracks, scarps and counterscarps. existing and the new LIMs has been performed using Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 9 of 23 Fig. 5 Ground deformation velocity maps in the surroundings of Militello Rosmarino town (Nebrodi) obtained using Radarsat-1 (a) and COSMO- SkyMed (b) PSI data. Pre-existing LIM (c) and updated LIM (d) three classes: (i) confirmed, (ii) enlarged with respect to evaluate the potential of UAV-DP to characterize and to the pre-existing LIM and (iii) new (landslide not monitor landslides. In particular, a multitemporal photo- included in the pre-existing LIM). This approach led to grammetric survey, carried out for the northern slope of the enlargement of 120 events (21.2%) of the pre- Ricasoli, are compared to define at very high resolution, existing LIM, to the confirmation of 155 events (27.4%), morphologic features of the slope and their evolution in and to the recognition of 291 (51.4%) new phenomena. time. The survey was performed using a multicopter drone (Saturn) with an innovative perimetric chassis, fully de- UAV and Ground based methods signed, built and patented by the Department of Earth UAV-DP for landslide characterization and mapping: The Science of the University of Florence (Fig. 6). The images Ricasoli case study were processed using Agisoft Photoscan Professional A periodical check was performed in the Ricasoli village (Agisoft LLC, 2016) software and the resulting data were (Upper Arno river Valley,Tuscany, Italy; Fig. 2), in order to implemented in a GIS environment using the ESRI ArcGIS Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 10 of 23 Fig. 6 a, b and c Orthophotos acquired during the three surveys in Ricasoli village by means of a special camera mounted on the Saturn multicopter drone (d) and (e and f) the differences in height calculated using the high resolution DTMs. The main scarps and landslide features are detected and analyzed based on the results of the DTM comparison package. Three 3D point clouds, acquired at a few months a local panoramic roadway (provincial roadway n° 25) one to each other and filtered in order to remove all the (Fig. 2). The area is characterized by very steep rock points processed on trees and high vegetation, were used slopes overlooking the roadway, which due to their com- to build high-resolution DTMs (0.05 m/pix) (Fig. 6). The plex geostructural setting and degree of fracturing (Gigli DTMs were compared to detect any morphological change et al., 2014a), in 2009 underwent the detachment of rock between the three acquisitions, to characterize the landslides mass portions and rock debris. In order to define the and, in addition, to precisely point out features as indicators risk scenarios for the roadway transportation security of landslide-prone areas on the slope (Fig. 6). As a result, conditions, the slope instability occurrences were inves- two landslides were detected and characterized, in terms of tigated through a methodology based on the integration areal extension, volume and temporal evolution. The overall of accurate geological and geomechanical field surveys extent and volume of the mass movements detected in and terrestrial remote sensing techniques, such as TLS Ricasoli are summarized in Table 2. The slope is currently and IRT (Frodella and Morelli, 2013; Gigli et al., 2014a). being monitored by performing repeated aerial surveys, and IRT surveys in particular were carried out in the assessed landslide evolution is being used as an input for Table 2 Extent and volume of the landslides occurred in the current mitigation works planning. northern slope of Ricasoli during the period of study Landslide Occurrence Extent (m ) Extimate TLS and IRT for risk scenario assessment: the Elba Island 3 Volume (m ) case study Landslide1 01/03/2016 950 480 The investigated area is located on the western Elba Landslide2 09/03/2016 320 70 Island coastline (Central Italy), along a 250 m stretch of Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 11 of 23 correspondence of rock mass most critical sectors, in threshold value of 1000 m , three protruding rock order to detect thermal anomalies connected to open masses were detected and labeled from north to south fractures, water seepage and moisture zones, validate the as M1, M2, and M3 (Figs. 7a and 8a, b, c). unstable block volume calculation, and rapidly assess the M3 rock mass, in addition to the basal slipping plane, hydraulic conditions along the more critical rock mass is also delimited southeastward from the stable portion discontinuities. The obtained TLS 3D surface model of the rock slope by a second sub-vertical plane (belong- contributed to characterize the morphological variability ing to JN2 set in Fig. 5c and D3 in Fig. 5d). The obtained of the investigated area: a rough morphology, character- surface temperature maps highlighted warm thermal ized by creek erosion gullies isolating jutting rock mass anomalies connected to air circulation were detected in portions (Fig. 7c). Figure 6c shows the stereographic correspondence of the open portions of the JN3 projection of the collected field survey structural data: discontinuities delimiting the detected M1, M2, and M3 five main discontinuity sets were identified, JN3 set in masses (Fig. 8g, h, i). The abovementioned discontinu- particular, including high persistent decimetric-spaced ities detected on the thermograms follow closely the EJ discontinuity planes (=exfoliation joints, EJ) dipping par- basal planes; this interpretation was strengthened by the allel with respect to the slope, represent slipping planes comparison of the thermograms with the optical images isolating large rock mass portions. that confirmed no evidence of water flow along the de- Furthermore a semi-automatic geo-structural survey tected discontinuities. For these reasons, dry conditions was performed by means of a Matlab tool (DiAna = Dis- were diagnosed for all M1, M2, and M3 basal slipping continuity Analysis; Gigli and Casagli 2011), on a limited planes, and the absence of water pressure was consid- sector of the rock mass not covered by nets, rock bolts, ered in the carried out stability analysis (Gigli et al., and fences. Figure 7d reports the poles of the semi- 2014a). The resulting assessed rock mass volumes automatically extracted discontinuities (labeled from D1 (expressed in cubic meter) are 3706 (M1), 4359 (M2), to D7, and represented in 3D in Fig. 7b). Given the geo- and 1293 (M3) respectively (Fig. 8c, d, e). logical setting of the investigated area, and the most probable detected failure mechanism occurring (planar Long-term monitoring of collapse-affected rock wall by failure along JN3 discontinuity set), an iterative proced- means of GB-InSAR, TLS and IRT: The San Leo case study ure was applied with the aim of identifying the max- The town of San Leo is located in the southwestern sec- imum credible scenario. A Matlab routine was built for tor of the Emilia Romagna Region (northern Italy; Fig. 2), this purpose by moving on the 3D surface a plane with on top of a limestone isolated rock massif overlying the same orientation of JN3 set. By selecting a volume clayey slopes, which is historically affected by instability Fig. 7 a High-definition 3D surface of the western Elba coastline (dots mark the different TLS scan positions, the square delimitates semiautomatic geomechanical surveyed area; b 3D representation of all the joint sets extracted; stereographic projection of discontinuity poles and modal planes of the main sets collected in the investigated area by means of traditional field surveys (c), and the semi-automatic analysis (d) (modified after Gigli et al., 2014a) Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 12 of 23 Fig. 8 Optical images of the unstable rock masses of the western Elba coastline (a =M1; c =M2; e = M3); related 3D digital model with the detected basal and lateral slipping planes (b, d, f); mosaicked thermograms from IRT (g =M1, h =M2, and i = M3) acquired around 1 p.m., November 2011 (dotted lines mark the basal slipping planes; white squares on the thermogram allow a comparison with the correspondent sectors in the optical images, acquired by the built- in digital camera) (modified after Gigli et al., 2014a) th phenomena. On February 27 , 2014 an entire portion of map, which allowed to read detected LOS displacements the rock plate north-eastern sector collapsed, causing a directly on the observed scenario 3D representation, and huge rockfall. Following the event a GB-InSAR monitor- therefore both to better localize the most critical areas, ing activity coupled with TLS surveys was carried out, in and compare the different techniques displacement data order to manage the post-event emergency phase and (Fig. 10). evaluate the residual risk (Frodella et al., 2016). Further- The GB-InSAR data acquired during the first monitor- more, IRT surveys were performed in order to integrate ing year allowed to assess a general stability of the rock the TLS and GB-InSAR data for the rock wall cliff and the observed town structures, and to detect characterization. The obtained 3D terrain model re- critical areas, corresponding to: i) a detensioned rock vealed a rock wall surface, characterized by criticalities block located at the foot of the monitored rock wall cen- such as overhanging sectors, ledges and niches (Fig. 9a). tral sector (confirming the TLS analysis of an ongoing 3D temporal variations of the terrain model were de- rock block toppling); and ii) the rockfall deposits (metric tected by comparing sequential datasets acquired in the and decametric size boulders and blocks in a coarse carried out different laser scanning surveys; the resulting sandy-clayey matrix, corresponding to the maximum re- th 3D rock wall temporal variations, from March 7 2014 corded cumulative displacement in the investigated area. th th to December 18 2014 (Fig. 9b, c). The deformational Surface temperature maps collected on April 9 2014 field analysis provided evidence of an ongoing rock (following a period characterized by local intense block toppling (with an estimated volume of 450 m ), rainfall) allowed to detect widespread seepage sectors in which displacement evolution reached values ranging correspondence of a rock mass key discontinuity, corre- from 12 to about 50 cm (Fig. 9b, c). The scan compari- sponding to a high persistent normal fault dissecting the son also provided the detection of minor rockfall whole rock massif (oval 1 in Fig. 10b, c). In this geo- phenomena (areas colored in blue in Fig. 9b, c) which logical, morphological and structural context discontinu- volumes are listed in Table 3. ities affected by seepage represent potential criticalities The TLS 3D model was merged with the GB-InSAR with respect to instability phenomena, as confirmed by data obtaining a 3D GB-InSAR cumulative displacement minor seepage sectors (ovals 4 in Fig. 9b, c), which are Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 13 of 23 Fig. 9 a High-resolution 3D surface of the surveyed rock wall in Sal Leo rock cliff (red dashed square corresponds to the area affected by block th detachments). b Comparison between March 7 2014-April 9th 2014 TLS scans: white oval showing the first monitored rock block detachment; th orange-yellow areas enhance rock wall sector characterized by displacements. c Comparison between March 7 2014-December 18th 2014 scans, enhancing the occurred detached rock block sectors (in blue); yellow ovals enhance the minor block detachments. d Correspondent sectors in optical image (black ovals enhance major detachments; dashed line delimits the rock wall displaced sector); (after Frodella et al., 2016) nd located in correspondence of rock wall sectors affected on February 2 2010, after a short-monitoring campaign by a widespread fracture network and block detach- the motorway was partially reopened, thanks to the ments (ovals 1–2 in Fig. 10c, d). structure stability assessment performed by means of the first GB-InSAR monitoring data (Figs. 11 and 12). Dur- Short-term GB-InSAR monitoring for emergency ing the mid-term monitoring campaign (lasted until th management: Santa Trada case study April 24 2010) two approaches for calculating the in- The Santa Trada landslide (Calabria Region, Southern terferograms and displacement maps were adopted: th Italy; Fig. 2) occurred on January 30 2009, after a period characterized by heavy rainfall (Del Ventisette et  Differential: the time span between the first and last al., 2011), putting at high risk a viaduct sector along the image composing the interferogram is kept constant A3 national motorway, and could have also dammed the (e.g. 1 day) and the interferograms represent sequential stream below. It is a 100 m high, 90 m wide translational moments (e.g. day-by-day displacement). This approach slide (estimated thickness is between 3 and 5 m), devel- is used in particular for kinematic analyses as it permits oped in sand and conglomerates originating from meta- to identify acceleration phases because it enables to morphic weathered rocks (Fig. 11). For safety reasons evaluate two comparable time periods. this tract of the motorway was closed to traffic and on  Incremental: the first image is taken as a reference st 31 January a ground-based had been installed. Already and the interferograms are all calculated between the reference and the last image; in this way the time span is increasing with time. This approach is Table 3 Detected detached rock blocks and calculated volumes useful to evaluate the total cumulative displacement (after Frodella et al., 2016) 3 and to measure the displacement even in the slower Detached sector Calculated volume (m ) Time interval (2014) portions of the landslide. Furthermore, it is suitable 1 94 April 9th - June 11th for spatial analyses as the total extension of the 2 66 June 11th - December 18th unstable area can be assessed. On the other hand, long time intervals can cause phase ambiguity and loss of coherence. For the Santa Trada landslide, thanks to the displacement maps provided by the GB-InSAR system, it was possible to 7 1.5 delimitate the area affected by the movement (Fig. 11) and to identify some temporal phases characterized by different Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 14 of 23 Fig. 10 GBInSAR and TLS data integration. a San Leo rock wall March 7th 2014 – 2015 3D GB-InSAR cumulative displacement map (after Frodella th et al., 2016). b Thermogram acquired during April 9 2014 (after Barla et al., 2016); c correspondent photo (seepage sectors 1-4 are characterized by lower temperatures, due to local rock wall surface cooling caused by water evaporation) activity levels and to assess the risk scenarios temporal evo- monitoring activities for different landslide types lution (Fig. 12). (Fig. 13). A brief overview of applications (individual or com- Discussion bined technique) has been shown through some selected The reliability and effectiveness of the described remote case studies in section 3. In this section the abovemen- sensing techniques, as well as their synergic use, have tioned case studies are discussed in order to show, for been enhanced, providing a wide range of surveying and the employed techniques their main advantages and st Fig. 11 a Photo of the Santa Trada landslide, 1 February 2009; b cumulated displacement map calculated using GB-InSAR data with incremental approach spanning from 2nd February to 29th April 2009. The letters indicate the corresponding points between the two images (after Del Ventisette et al., 2011) Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 15 of 23 Fig. 12 Displacement and velocity time series of Santa Trada landslide obtained from the GB-InSAR system (after Del Ventisette et al., 2011) limitations and the possibility of a synergic use for differ- competing satellite operators entering the market, prices ent applications (Table 4). constantly decrease. A main advantage of optical data- sets is their synergetic values for several other applica- Spaceborne platforms tions such as: With the increasing large constellation of VHR satellites, imagery can be acquired timely after major landslide  post-disaster damage assessment; events and with daily temporal resolution at nearly glo-  updating of land cover and landslide inventory maps; bal coverage. The main advantage of VHR imagery is the  corresponding archives are often available over a great density of spatial information, whereas, with more given area. Fig. 13 Schematised workflow of the applied techniques showing the different degree of connection between the advanced products (coming from the available instrumentation) which are the basis for addressing the various landslides issues Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 16 of 23 Table 4 Overview of advantages/limitations of the employed methods with respect to landslide type and analysis context Remote sensing Case Instability Type of Advantages Drawbacks technique study process type application Optical VHR Giampilieri Shallow Landslide i) great density of spatial information, i) high cost; ii) on-demand acquisition; (OOA) soil slides – mapping ii) numerous platforms, iii) high spatial, iii) cloud cover; iv) acquisition limited Debris flows temporal and spectral resolution, to daylight, v) OOA thresholds iv) OOA approaches able to delineate definition between changed and areas affected by landslides unchanged areas Spaceborne SAR Nebrodi e Complex, Landslide i) good cost/benefit ratio, ii) coverage i) detection of fast movements; (PSI) Peloritani rotational and detection of wide areas; iii) millimeter accuracy; ii) monitoring in deferred time; deep-seated and mapping iv) availability of historical archives iii) presence of dense vegetation landslides (since 1992); v) day-night and all cover; iv) geometric distortions; weather acquisition. v) unusable to detect N-S oriented landslides. UAV-DP Ricasoli Shallow Landslide i) Low cost, rapid survey; ii) high repeatability; i) Restrictive UAV flight regulations; landslides characterization iii) high resolution data; iv) avoidance ii) skilled operator required; and mapping of shadowing effects. iii) negative effect of vegetation on the point cloud. TLS - IRT Elba Rock slides Landslide i) Favorable logistic conditions (up-close TLS: i) point cloud resolution related island risk scenario survey); ii) Rapid 3D surface, geo-structural to scenario distance; ii) negative assessment and geo-mechanical survey; iii) detailed effect of vegetation on the point unstable masses detection-volume cloud. IRT: iii) scenario thermal calculation. contrasts related to slope orientation-roughness and solar radiation (daily/seasonal variations). GB-InSAR - San Leo Rock fall Landslide i) Multi-system approach for wide range i) Intrinsic limitation of each adopted TLS - IRT long-term of instability process detection and analysis; technique (L.O.S, range of detectable monitoring GB-InSAR: ii) millimeter accuracy; velocity, repetition time). IRT-TLS: iii) continuous monitoring. iv) day-night ii) only periodical check. GB-InSAR: and all weather acquisition. iii) uncapability for detecting rapid and perpendicular displacements with respect to the L.O.S.; iv) ambiguity in locating displacements for overhanging- slope sectors. GB-InSAR Santa Translational Landslide i) Rapid installation; ii) day-night and all i) System loss of coherence, spatial Trada slide Emergency weather acquisition; iii) early warning and temporal decorrelation due management and rapid assessment of risk scenario. to vegetation cover; ii) not favorable alignment between system L.O.S. and landslide movement direction (only 15–35% of displacement detected). A greater diversity of platforms increases the chance In many cases, it might also be possible to account for to acquire cloud free imagery of a given area with a spe- sensor and illumination differences by cross calibration cified time frame; nevertheless atmospheric conditions and image transformation. However, only limited accur- remain an important factor that, depending on the cli- acy can be expected from such approaches in situation mate zone and the season, may delay the acquisition of where other similar surface changes such as deforest- suitable images. For these reasons, satellite tasked for ation or barren fields are present in the same scene. The images with sub-meter resolution can still be associated selection of an appropriate threshold to distinguish with considerable costs. Higher spatial, spectral (e.g. between changed and unchanged areas remains as a WorldView-2) and temporal resolutions strongly in- general difficulty for the application of pixel-based crease the computational load for the storage and ana- methods. Further problems are usually encountered lysis of the datasets, especially for mapping over wide when pixel-base change detection is applied on VHR areas. This can considerably slow down the analysis and imagery because of the higher spectral variance and may need for further investments in hardware and soft- stronger impacts of small co-registration errors. Due to ware. This is closely related to the desirable exploitation a better exploitation of the spatial context within remote of spatial context which is typically computational inten- sensing images, OOA approaches generally yield better sive. Pixel-based change detection (typically image differ- results than could be achieved with per pixel analyses. It encing) is relatively easy to apply and can be accurate has been demonstrated that OOA rule sets are not only when most of surface changes are caused by landslides. capable to accurately delineate areas affected by Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 17 of 23 landslides but can also be used to distinguish among dif-  The high density of benchmarks (up to several ferent landslide types (Martha et al. 2010). In the study hundreds per km ). area of Giampilieri (Lu et al., 2011) the OOA approach  The use of “natural” benchmarks not requiring has proved an effective tool to map rapid landslides, and deployment and maintenance. support the local authorities and civil protection depart-  The possibility of geo-locating the benchmarks with ment for the emergency management. For both the ob- a precision in the order of 1–5 meters. tained number and spatial extent of detected landslides,  The availability of the extremely valuable ESA the results show a lower producer’s accuracy than user’s (European Space Agency) ERS archive spanning accuracy: specifically, ca. 31% of all manually mapped about 20 years, which enables to carry out landslides were omitted in the OOA based detection. retrospective studies. This indicates an overestimation of false positives during their classification, accompanied with an underestima- Recent studies proved the feasibility of combining (stitch- tion of true positives obtained from the membership ing) SAR data acquired by different sensors (e.g., ENVISAT function of the selected samples. Further improvements with ERS, or RADARSAT-1 with RADARSAT-2), despite should include a more accurate definition of these slight differences in critical image acquisition parameters. thresholds for classifying false positives and a more care- Regular revisiting time in the order of 20–40 days (up to ful selection of representative samples. 6 days with the new Sentinel-1 ESA mission). As discussed by Colesanti & Wasowski (2006), due to On the whole, the case studies described in the scien- the inherent limitations of current space observation sys- tific literature highlight that with reference to the detec- tems and relevant data processing techniques, the prac- tion/mapping of slow-moving landslide phenomena the tical applicability of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry main benefits regard: (PSI) approaches is usually limited to two landslide classes of the Cruden & Varnes (1996) classification: extremely  the definition of the boundaries of already detected slow and very slow movements (vel < 16 mm/year and mass movements; 16 mm/year ≤ vel < 1.6 m/year, respectively). These phe-  the definition of the states of activity; nomena are suitable for analysis based on PSI techniques,  the detection of previously unmapped unstable areas. as long as they evolve with very low displacement rates (few tens of centimeters per year) and their velocities do However, several limiting factors need to be properly not exceed the intrinsic limits of the techniques (related taken into account (Colesanti and Wasowski, 2006): to the radar wavelength, revisiting time of the platform and the spatial density of measurement points). Moreover,  Displacement data represent the one-dimensional landslide-induced displacements, detectable through PSI projection along the LOS projection of a deformation techniques, are restricted to “coherent” landslides with that can actually occur in all three dimensions. very slow dynamics, i.e. with little internal deformation  The ambiguity of phase measurements implies the such as deep-seated deformations (García-Davalillo et al, impossibility to track correctly (i.e., unambiguously) 2014), creep (Cascini et al., 2010), and, in some cases, the relative LOS displacement between two slides (Raspini et al., 2015b) roto-translational slides scatterers exceeding λ/4 (=1.4 cm for ERS) within (Tofani et al. 2013a, b), rockslide (Lauknes et al., 2010), one revisiting time interval (35 days for ERS), i.e. complex landslides (Bardi et al., 2014), slow earth flows approximately 14.5 cm/yr. In practice, it is extremely (Herrera et al., 2011) and badlands (Herrera et al., 2009). difficult to detect LOS displacement rates exceeding InSAR data can provide useful information about pre- 8 – 10 cm/yr in the presence of low density of stable event movements, often characterized by low displace- scatterers, such as in the case of landslides where ment rates (few cm/year) persisting over long time periods topography and vegetation introduce a limitation in (Bardi et al., 2016; Frodella et al., 2016). This deformation the number of detected scatterers. This limits the regime is quite different to failure events, which occur use of multi-interferometric approaches only to suddenly and may produce ground displacements of sev- landslides ranging from extremely to very slow eral meters (Raspini et al., 2015a). phenomena according to the velocity classification With reference to landslide detection/mapping the of Cruden and Varnes (1996). most advantageous aspects of the multipass D-InSAR  Limited versatility in terms of (a) positioning of the approach are (Colesanti and Wasowski, 2006): measurement points and (b) revisiting time. Both factors (a) and (b) cannot be optimized as degrees of The cost-effectiveness for wide-area (hundreds and freedom while planning an analysis. thousands of km ) applications, typical of spaceborne  Finally, it is still difficult to forecast the coherent remotely sensed data. pixel density in rural areas without carrying out at Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 18 of 23 least several processing steps on a significant analyses. In San Leo an integrated use of GB-InSAR, number (15–20) of SAR images. TLS and IRT has been applied for landslide monitoring (section 3.2.2). The GB-InSAR one year monitoring UAV and Ground-based methods campaign allowed analysing the short-term behavior of In terrestrial applications it is still necessary to perform the 2014 rockfall event deposits (Frodella et al., 2016). A time-consuming and hazardous activities, such as pla- general stability of the town monitored structures and cing ground control points on the analysed scenario analysed rock wall was assessed, and 4 critical sectors (Stavroulaki et al., 2016), if not supported by other tech- were detected in the monitored area by means of 2D dis- nologies (Forlani et al., 2014). In this framework UAV placement maps, while 7 acceleration events were de- photogrammetry has the following advantages: real-time, tected from the GB-InSAR control points time series. flexibility, high-resolution, low costs, as it allows the The accuracy in locating a GBInSAR control point is collection of information in dangerous environments controlled by the system azimuth and range resolutions, without risk (Chang-chun et al. 2011). Furthermore, the which are in terms related to the distance between the recent development of new algorithms for digital photo- sensor and the backscattering objects. Regarding the San grammetry, based on Structure from Motion (SfM) Leo case study, the investigated rock wall has a subverti- (Westoby et al. 2012) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) cal geometry which in some portions shows overhanging (James and Robson, 2012) techniques, allows obtaining sectors; in this framework, the GB-InSAR system instal- high-resolution 3D models, even by using compact and lation frontal with respect to the surveyed scenario, lead consumer-grade digital cameras (Lucieer et al., 2013; to a different range resolution of scenario sectors located Rossi et al., 2016). In the case of landslide monitoring at different heights along the surveyed rock wall (Fig. 10). and characterization, acquiring aerial imagery using The obtained 3D displacement map in fact shows an drones permits to overcome some limits of ground- ambiguity in locating deformation sectors along the rock based photogrammetric surveying, such as shadowing wall height; therefore, in this specific case study sectors effects, which can drastically reduce the accuracy of the characterized by displacements are displayed as vertical resulting digital models. zones instead of pixel clusters located at the cliff bottom The synergic use of TLS and IRT has been applied at (Fig. 9). The 3D GB-InSAR displacement map was also Elba island case study (section 3.2.1). The TLS survey used for a comparison between TLS and GB-InSAR dis- yielded a detailed 3-D remote structural, geometrical, placement data. The difference in the recorded displace- and geomechanical characterization of the investigated ments detected by the two monitoring systems in rock masses. In particular, a semiautomatic geomechani- correspondence of the detected rock block toppling is cal survey made possible the automatic calculation of six related to the different displacement components of the of the ten parameters suggested by ISRM (1985) for the recorded movements, due to the two different monitor- quantitative description of discontinuities (orientation, ing systems LOSs. The analyzed rock cliff is character- spacing, persistence, roughness, number of sets, and ized by complex geomorphological and geometric block size). A total of 1359 planes were recognized and features, different ongoing landslide processes with vari- clustered according to seven different discontinuity sets, ous state of activity. Each single employed monitoring adding two more discontinuity sets to the five detected technique can be considered not adequate for their in- by means of the traditional field survey, therefore trinsic limitations. The combined use of the abovemen- improving the rock mass structural-geomechanical tioned techniques provided an effective monitoring characterization (Fig. 7). The obtained TLS 3-D products system for landslide characterization and state of activity also provided reference morphological maps useful for monitoring, thanks to the different instrument charac- both further detailed field inspections and the design of teristics (LOS, range of detectable velocity, repetition possible future restoration works. The proposed ap- time), which allowed to overcome the limitations of each proach proved to be an effective tool in the field of emer- single employed technique. Compared to GB-InSAR, gency management, when it is often urgently necessary TLS does not suffer from problematics such as loss of and gather all the required information (characterization coherence, decorrelation, and displacement detection and mapping) as fast as possible in dangerous capability only along the sensor LOS; on the other hand, environments. GB-InSAR single measure can reach sub-millimeter ac- The investigated area showed favorable logistic condi- curacy, while using a TLS it is not possible to easily de- tions; in fact, the roadway at the foot of the investigated tect displacements smaller than 10 mm. Therefore, TLS rock slope was fundamental in carrying out up-close the was considered more suitable for the detection, field inspections, the TLS, and the TIR surveys. Had this characterization and volume assessment of the minor condition not existed, the point cloud resolution would rockfall events affecting the newly formed cliff (too fast not probably have been high enough for such detailed phenomena to be detected by means of the GB-InSAR Casagli et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2017) 4:9 Page 19 of 23 system). In both the abovementioned case studies, the data that are accurate but necessarily limited to a small capability to remotely collect the scenario surface number of control points (Teza et al., 2008). Currently temperature at a detailed spatial resolution proved that landslide analysis operators can select the most proper IRT can be usefully applied in the field landslide ana- methodology with respect to their specific needs, which lyses. Nevertheless, IRT alone is insufficient for a can be related to the different civil protection phases, complete landslide characterization; in order to obtain a technical issues, financial budget, environmental factors more accurate interpretation of the results IRT could be and specific features of the studied instability phenom- more profitably used as an ancillary low cost technique ena. The selection of the proper methodology to be through the integration with other ground based remote adopted can be related to technical issues, economic sensing techniques, such as TLS and GB-InSAR. Future budget, environmental factors and specific feature of the developments should include the application of fixed landslides to be monitored. Because of a growing demand IRT installations for gathering continuous, high- for effective Civil Protection procedures in pre- and post- resolution, real-time data to be compared with those of disaster initiatives in landslide-prone areas, the purpose of the integrated GB-InSAR and TLS monitoring systems. researchers in the near future is to improve the investiga- Furthermore, the portability of modern thermal cameras tive capacity of the such instruments and consequently to and the rapid evolution of IRT technology opens up fu- extend their fields of application. In fact, landslides ture scenarios of automated inspections, which could be managing in order to reduce vulnerability is currently quickened by using remotely controlled UAV platforms. considered more feasible (in terms of faster and extensive The Santa Trada landslide offers a good example of GB- results) than governing all the natural conditions leading InSAR application in emergency conditions in order to to instability, such as the spatial distribution of geology assess the risk impending on a critical infrastructure. In and geomorphology and the climatic influence. Santa Trada area, a GB-InSAR device was promptly in- Authors’ contributions stalled in order to understand the temporal evolution of NC conceived and structured the whole manuscript. He also supervised the a landslide that seriously threatened the functionality writing, especially during the organization of contributions coming from different techniques. WF, SM, EI were responsible for the preparation of the and the safety of a strategic road infrastructure. This ground-based sections. VT, AC, FR, PL were responsible for the preparation of technique worked with all weather conditions and with a the spaceborne sections. GR and LT were responsible for the preparation of continuous surveillance for all the time of emergency, allow- the UAV sections. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. ing the rapid assessment of the overall dynamics of the in- Competing interests stable slope and related risks scenarios. This application was The authors declare that they have no competing interests. among the first to demonstrate the full effectiveness of this Author details system in managing landslides emergencies since it greatly Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 facilitated the intervention operations by designated author- 2 Florence, Italy. 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Integrating radar and 7 High visibility within the fi eld laser-based remote sensing techniques for monitoring structural deformation of 7 Retaining the copyright to your article archaeological monuments. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(1): 176–189. Tapete, D., S. Morelli, R. Fanti, and N. Casagli. 2015. Localising deformation along the elevation of linear structures: an experiment with space-borne InSAR and Submit your next manuscript at 7 springeropen.com

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Geoenvironmental DisastersSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 7, 2017

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