Human parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) infection is known to induce aplastic crisis in patients with hemolytic anemia. In healthy subjects, B19 infection may sometimes cause mild pancytopenia, but these changes are transient and recovery is spontaneous. We report the first case of aplastic anemia in a previously healthy boy without any underlying diseases, following asymptomatic infection with the B19 virus. Laboratory examination initially showed thrombocytopenia, mild leukopenia in the peripheral blood, and severe hypoplastic bone marrow. Since pancytopenia developed and worsened progressively, immunosuppressive therapy was given, resulting in a complete remission. Despite the lack of an infectious prodrome, serological and histological analysis revealed an underlying infection with the B19 virus. Thus, B19 virus infection must be considered one of the causes of aplastic anemia in patients without underlying hemolytic anemia and an apparent episode of the viral infection.
Annals of Hematology – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 1, 1999
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