The three major threats to lichens in Sweden; forestry, air pollution, and structural changes in the agricultural landscape, are outlined. Forestry is the most serious. The majority of the red-listed lichens in forests are found in productive forests with a continuity in tree growth, but nearly 70% of the protected area in Sweden consists of alpine landscapes. Examples of important habitats with red-listed lichens are described, e.g. Alnus glutinosa marshes, alvar-vegetation, broad-leaved deciduous forests and different Picea abies forests. The use of selected indicator species of lichens and macrofungi (mainly red-listed species) in boreal coniferous forests provides information on continuity in tree growth of an area, and on earlier influences of forestry. Examples of indicator species for different types of forest are presented and discussed. In spite of the Swedish ‘right of common access’o, collecting of lichens is forbidden without permission from the land-owner. Collecting in protected areas is allowed only with a permit obtained from the authorities.
Biodiversity and Conservation – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 29, 2004
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