Policy Sciences 30: 71^90, 1997. ß1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Public involvement methods in natural resource policy making: Advantages, disadvantages and trade-o¡s * ** TODDI A. STEELMAN & WILLIAM ASCHER Graduate School of Public A¡airs, University of Colorado at Denver, Denver, CO 80217-3364, U.S.A.; ** Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, U.S.A. Introduction In the late 1960s and 1970s, legislation such as the National Environmental Policy Act (1969), the Coastal Zone Management Act (1972), and the National Forest Management Act (1976) called for public hearings and comment periods to allow citizen input into the policy making process. During this same time frame, the Department of Defense and the Environmental Protection Agency also began utilizing citizen advisory committees to aid them in rulemaking. In addition to the increase in these methods of public involvement, there has been an accompanying increase in the use of referenda. The 1996 election cycle saw a record number of 93 referenda on ballots across the United States. Referenda were held on such detailed rulemaking issues as the speci¢c types of traps used in wildlife management in Massachusetts, taxation on sugar producers in Florida, and the banning of clearcutting
Policy Sciences – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 29, 2004
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