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Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing

Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing Adv. Manuf. (2020) 8:331–343 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40436-020-00306-1 1 1 1 • • Wei Wei Feng Zhou Peng-Fei Liang Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 9 December 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published online: 15 May 2020 The Author(s) 2020 Abstract Cloud manufacturing is emerging as a new telecommunication networks, broadcast and television manufacturing paradigm and an integrated technology. To networks, and wireless broadband networks based on the adapt to the increasing challenges of the traditional man- above three service models. Cloud manufacturing inte- ufacturing industry transforming toward service-oriented grates and develops existing manufacturing information and innovative manufacturing, this paper proposes a pro- technologies (such as computer-aided design, production, duct platform architecture based on cloud manufacturing. experiment, simulation, management, and integration) and Firstly, a framework for the product platform for cloud emerging information technologies (such as cloud com- manufacturing was built. The proposed architecture is puting, IoT, service computing, intelligent science, and composed of five layers: resource, cloud technology, cloud high-efficiency computing). service, application, and user layers. Then, several key Various types of manufacturing resources and capabili- enabling technologies for forming the product platform ties are virtualized and made service-oriented to form a were studied. Finally, the product platform for cloud service cloud pool that can be unified and centralized for manufacturing built by a company was taken as an appli- optimization management. The core of cloud manufactur- cation example to illustrate the architecture and functions ing is to share manufacturing resources and capabilities. of the system. The validity and superiority of the archi- The key to cloud manufacturing is to build a public product tecture were verified. platform for cloud manufacturing to realize the unified management of manufacturing resources and capabilities Keywords Cloud manufacturing  Cloud service  Product that can be accessed on demand by users through the cloud platform  Architecture  Product collaborative design anywhere and anytime. Therefore, the efficient sharing and utilization of resources is realized, and the lifecycle of manufacturing is intelligently completed [2]. The product platform for cloud manufacturing is a 1 Introduction complex system. Therefore, construction of the platform Cloud computing provides three types of services: software needs key enabling technologies to solve problems and as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and maintain the efficiency and sustainability of the system. infrastructure as a service (IaaS). Cloud manufacturing [1] Golightly et al. [3] discussed the technology of collabora- is a new manufacturing model developed from the concept tion in cloud manufacturing environments. The IoT, cloud of ‘‘manufacturing as a service (MaaS)’’ derived from computing, and high-performance computing technologies networks such as the internet and internet of things (IoT), are the current emerging information technologies that are integrated and developed with cloud manufacturing [4, 5]. Cloud manufacturing still needs technologies that can & Wei Wei directly interact with machine tools and other physical weiwei@buaa.edu.cn devices. In recent years, with the development of computer technology, users have had increasingly higher requirement School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang for interactive interfaces. Therefore, technologies for the University, Beijing 100191, People’s Republic of China 123 332 W. Wei et al. user terminal to utilize cloud services are also very A product platform for cloud manufacturing can break important for cloud manufacturing (e.g., intelligent user through the limitations of the boundaries and resources of a interface [6] and human-computer interaction [7]). company and make users transparently access rich In the research on cloud manufacturing, MIT conducted resources. The platform provides a support environment for a DICE research project and developed a product design efficiently sharing the resources of product design and can system based on cloud manufacturing to provide a shared improve the utilization of manufacturing resources and working space for designers so they could participate in shorten the product development cycle. In addition, the any part of the design process [8]. Stanford University platform will be of great significance in improving the conducted the SHARE project, where team members competitiveness of the product market and accelerating the shared design knowledge and ideas through the cloud [9]. transformation of manufacturing from product oriented to The Boeing Company, the largest aircraft manufacturer in service oriented. the world, adopted internet-based collaborative design to In this research, a product platform model based on manage manufacturing companies in more than 40 coun- cloud manufacturing is proposed. To better adapt to the tries and regions around the world and collaboratively increasing challenges of the traditional manufacturing build Boeing 787 passenger aircraft. This approach short- industry transforming toward service-oriented and inno- ened the development cycle by 30% and reduced costs by vative manufacturing, this paper proposes an architecture 50% [10]. of the product platform for cloud manufacturing and The team, led by Bo-hu Li, an academician at the Chi- advanced manufacturing technologies that contribute to the nese Academy of Engineering, conducted research on evolution of the cloud-based product platform. Moreover, a cloud design and simulation and built a cloud simulation product platform for cloud manufacturing built by a com- platform that was applied to the collaborative design of pany is adopted as an example to illustrate the architecture aircraft virtual prototypes [11]. The research results of and functions of the system. The validity and superiority of Katzmaier and Hanneghan [12] demonstrated that the the architecture are verified. internet-based design pattern had overtaken the original design pattern in terms of versatility, diversity, and synergy. 2 Architecture of product platform for cloud Cloud manufacturing not only takes advantage of the manufacturing operating model of cloud computing but also inherits the advantages of advanced manufacturing models such as At present, improving the design efficiency of complex networked and flexible manufacturing [13]. A comparison products, ensuring product design quality, reducing product between cloud manufacturing and other advanced manu- design cost, and satisfying the diversified needs of users are facturing models is shown in Table 1. The efficient sharing important considerations for the survival and development of large manufacturing resources, good system availability, of companies [15]. and high user participation make the cloud manufacturing Product design is the key to product quality and manu- model a pivotal innovation in advanced manufacturing facturing costs. The developing model based on the product models [14]. platform can make use of high-precision equipment, senior experts, design knowledge, and other resources, and can Table 1 Comparison of characteristics of three advanced manufacturing models Flexible manufacturing Network manufacturing Cloud manufacturing System functions Cooperation Resource sharing/cooperation Resource sharing/resource efficiency/cooperation System openness Many constraints, poor openness Better openness Highly open Resource type Organization, human, Equipment, people, Materials, equipment, software, technology materials, network, hardware, logistics, human, knowledge information 9 12 15 Data amount GB level (1GB = 10 B) TB level (1TB = 10 B) PB level (1PB = 10 B) Resource usage Customization Dynamic configuration On-demand dynamic configuration User participation Moderate Moderate High Collaboration scope Several companies Companies in several industries Companies in almost every industry Key technologies FMT/CAD/AI Service/ASP/Globus Service/Cloud computing/Internet of Things 123 Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing 333 also organize and manage these resources effectively to technology resources related to product development and improve the utilization of resources [16]. optimize their utilization. Although the system environment constructed by a tra- ditional distributed network can complete collaborative 2.1 Resource layer work, the demand of the user for system dynamics cannot be satisfied owing to the restrictions of the static nature of The resource layer is the physical foundation of the product software and hardware systems [17]. The fundamental platform for cloud manufacturing [18]. The resources in the feature of a cloud manufacturing service system is elimi- platform mainly refer to the collection of software, hard- nating the information island of manufacturing resources ware, computing power, knowledge, and standards for the efficient sharing and on-demand allocation of involved in the entire lifecycle of the product. In the cloud resources. A network environment with dynamic adapt- manufacturing environment, users select and utilize ability and expansibility constructed by the cloud manu- resources that are beneficial to complete tasks among a facturing system can fully share resources and reduce costs. wealth of resources. In the traditional networked manu- The traditional product platform architecture is divided facturing model, to effectively evaluate and control the into resource, tool, and application layers. The traditional execution of collaborative processes, users need to have manufacturing model focuses on pooling resources and certain network knowledge to understand the topology and completing product development tasks as independently as layout of resources. possible. In essence, the product development process is For a cloud manufacturing environment with massive completed by multiparty cooperation, and the computing resources, the system dynamically and intelligently allo- resources are significant. The actual application require- cates related resources to users. Therefore, the cloud ments have not been met by traditional product platforms. manufacturing environment reduces requirements of the Therefore, a model based on the product platform and network knowledge of participants and the imbalance of cloud manufacturing technology was developed, and a resources (overload or idle), and improves resource product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing was utilization. proposed. The framework structure of a product platform for cloud 2.2 Cloud technology layer manufacturing is shown in Fig. 1. The product platform for cloud manufacturing, which supports business collabora- In the product platform for cloud manufacturing, the key to tion between distributed enterprises, is fused and expanded achieving collaboration is to solve the resource-sharing based on its original architecture. It can efficiently share problem in the cloud manufacturing environment. Cross- standardized design, manufacturing, information, and sector, cross-enterprise, and even cross-regional resource Fig. 1 Architecture of product platform based on cloud manufacturing 123 334 W. Wei et al. sharing can avoid repeating utilization of resources, service automatically adds or deletes users accord- increase resource utilization, and reduce product cost. The ing to the task execution requirement, and records resources have features such as diversity, heterogeneity, the users’ task execution history to ensure the and particularity. To effectively share these resources, the efficient and orderly execution of the tasks. (ii) Standardized management services. Standardized first issue that needs to be solved is the description of these design resources for unified standards and encapsulation. management is the prerequisite to providing efficient services with resources. The establish- The purpose of the cloud technology layer is to shield the heterogeneity and complexity of resources, access the ment of unified standards for different resources can facilitate the registration and invocation of cloud manufacturing service platform, and provide a uni- fied interface to realize the efficient sharing and collabo- resources and reduce the response time of resource ration of resources. Various approaches can shield the services. The establishment of evaluation stan- heterogeneity and complexity of resources, including dards for service quality and the monitoring of resource virtualization, resource management, resource changes in service quality can eliminate disqual- awareness, and IoT technologies. ified resources and ensure that the platform can provide high-quality design services. (i) Resource virtualization technology. The core (iii) Task assignment service. Task assignment is technology of cloud manufacturing is resource critical for collaboration. The product platform virtualization technology. This can realize the for cloud manufacturing intelligently decomposes comprehensive interconnection, sensing, and feed- complex tasks and allocates tasks according to the back control of manufacturing resources, and capabilities of service resources. transform manufacturing resources into logical (iv) Conflict resolution service. Collaboration is the manufacturing resources to support the virtual process of continuous conflict generation and cloud manufacturing service environment with a elimination. For example, resources that are high level of resource utilization, agility, reliabil- accessed by different users will inevitably create ity, security, and availability [19]. conflicts in time. The method of effectively (ii) Resource management technology. In the product eliminating conflicts and ensuring the efficiency collaborative design system of cloud manufactur- of resource access is an important issue that needs ing services, resource management technology to be considered. can realize the discovery and rapid sharing of (v) System security service. The security of the massive resources in the cloud, and fully monitor system is a prerequisite for normal operation, the service status of resources to ensure the including user information security, design data smooth and efficient operation of manufacturing security, and access process security. services [20]. (iii) Resource awareness technology and IoT technol- ogy. In a cloud manufacturing system, various 2.4 Application layer manufacturing resources and capabilities can be intelligently sensed and connected into the wider The application layer is the most intuitive presentation internet, and automatically managed and con- layer of the product platform for cloud manufacturing. It trolled using resource awareness technology and implements functions by establishing corresponding inter- IoT technologies (e.g., radio frequency identifica- faces. Users can also combine and reconfigure existing tion (RFID), wired and wireless sensor networks, functions to meet the needs of collaborative tasks. This and embedded systems) [21]. study introduces product collaborative design, modeling, simulation, and manufacturing. Specific functions will be introduced in detail in Sect. 4. 2.3 Cloud service layer 2.5 User layer The cloud service layer is critical to the operation of the product platform for cloud manufacturing. It mainly The user layer is the portal layer of the product platform. includes services such as user data management, stan- The user layer provides the user with a working environ- dardized management, task allocation, conflict resolution, ment through the network so that users can access the and system security. product platform anytime and anywhere. Users can per- form resource access, service invocation, task submission, (i) User data management service. In the collabora- tive work process, the user data management and task monitoring based on the task needs. In addition, 123 Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing 335 users can query information such as the service history of intelligent operator of services such as intelligent interac- the resources and select the most suitable resource to tion and collaboration between services. (iii) The users of minimize the cost. In recent years, with the development of cloud manufacturing are mainly internet users, and IoT computer technology, users have had higher and higher technology can support the communications of these users. requirements for interactive interfaces. Therefore, a good interactive interface is also very important for the product 3.1.2 Cloud service technology platform for cloud manufacturing. Cloud service technology is the core technology of the product platform for cloud manufacturing. Cloud service 3 Key technologies of product platform for cloud technology uses technologies such as the IoT and virtual- manufacturing ization to encapsulate distributed cloud resources and capabilities based on knowledge. This involves the fusion The product platform for cloud manufacturing is a complex of structured experience, value, relevant information, and system. Therefore, the construction of the platform needs expert insight through the entire life cycle of manufactur- to be based on technologies such as cloud manufacturing, ing (such as manufacturing domain knowledge, design product family and product platforms, and product col- knowledge, rule knowledge, process knowledge, and laborative design. The specific details are shown in Fig. 2. model knowledge), and then accesses cloud platform. The key technologies that are more important are described Manufacturing resources and capabilities, primarily below. referring to software, hardware, computing power, knowl- edge, and standards involved in the entire life cycle of the 3.1 Key technologies of cloud manufacturing product, are highly virtualized into cloud services and provide users with manufacturing lifecycle applications in 3.1.1 IoT technology the form of services. The process of cloud service forma- tion is the process of cloud manufacturing resources and IoT technology is one of the key technologies for cloud capabilities being serviced [17]. The relationship of manufacturing. There are three levels of application of IoT resources, manufacturing cloud, and cloud services in the technology in cloud manufacturing [22]. (i) The IoT is used cloud manufacturing system is reflected in Fig. 3. to realize the perception of various manufacturing equip- In cloud manufacturing services, besides the computa- ments, internet connections, acquisitions, and automatic tional resources (such as the server, storage, network, and control. (ii) The IoT is used to make logistics and energy in software [20]) involved in cloud computing, all manufac- intelligent manufacturing systems as well, and support the turing resources and capabilities are provided for the user Fig. 2 Key technologies of the product platform for cloud manufacturing 123 336 W. Wei et al. in different service models based on IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS, including the following models: argumentation as a ser- vice, design as a service, fabrication as a service, experi- ment as a service, simulation as a service, and integration as a service [16]. The computing resources in cloud manufacturing resources are similar to those in cloud computing. The difference is that cloud manufacturing resources are not limited to computing resources but extend to a wider range of resources including manufacturing equipment resources. The difference and relationships between cloud computing and cloud manufacturing are illustrated in Fig. 4 [20]. 3.1.3 Resource management technology Fig. 4 Relationship between cloud computing and cloud manufacturing Resource management technology is a key and difficult point for the realization of the product platform for cloud manufacturing, the extensible markup language manufacturing. The cloud manufacturing system is an (XML), web service ontology language (OWL-S), environment that integrates manufacturing resources and and unified modeling language (UML) can be capabilities, including many heterogeneous and off-site used in the data layer, semantic layer, and logical resources. Effectively managing these resources is a major layer, respectively, to establish corresponding challenge for the system. Therefore, resource management extensible description templates [23–25]. technology needs to involve the following aspects. Figures 5 and 6 present an example of the (i) Unified classification and description of resources. manufacturing equipment. The description is Distribution, heterogeneity, autonomy, and quan- implemented in the XML language, which is tity are the characteristics of manufacturing popular for data exchange and interoperable web resources in a cloud manufacturing service envi- applications. In addition, in the process of estab- ronment. Various types of resources that may be lishing the description of manufacturing used in the cloud manufacturing process need to resources, the requirements of resource discovery, be uniformly classified and described to facilitate integration, and matching need to be fully con- the integration, sharing, and management of sidered, and the resources need to be described as manufacturing resources in this environment. For completely as possible. various resources and tasks of cloud Figure 5 shows the XML schema of the Fig. 3 Relationship of resources, cloud services and manufacturing clouds in cloud manufacturing system 123 Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing 337 manufacturing equipment. The ProfileInfo that appears in Fig. 5 describes the basic information, and the ManageInfo describes the utilization of this manufacturing equipment. The schema can be extended or customized when they are applied to other kinds of manufacturing resources. Figure 6 shows the XML document of a machine. The content of the document is generated by a cell view that reflects the manufacturing resource description of the machine. (ii) Virtualization of resources. Resources need to be virtualized before they are deployed to cloud manufacturing systems. Virtualization of Fig. 6 XML document of the equipment resources can shield the off-site distribution and heterogeneity of resources so that they can encapsulation operation using a cloud service achieve unified access on the network [19]. The template [26]. key to the virtualization of resources is to (iii) Resource discovery. For the massive resources in transform the heterogeneous manufacturing the product platform for cloud manufacturing, the resources into homogeneous cloud services. rapid sharing of resources must be achieved Resource virtualization can be implemented in through a good discovery mechanism so that two phases: virtual description and service encap- users can easily search for the required service sulation. Virtual description aims to build a resources. Therefore, research on an efficient resource description specification that represents resource search algorithm and a historical task- the manufacturing resource information compre- based resource discovery model is important for hensively in a unified virtual resource data model. solving the problem. Service encapsulation extracts functional features (iv) Resource binding strategy. The dynamic binding of manufacturing resources from the virtual of resources intelligently matches and binds the resource data model and encapsulates them as services with corresponding resources and moni- cloud services to interoperate with the cloud tors the service status of resources throughout the platform in a uniform interface. The resource process to ensure the smooth and efficient oper- descriptions are encapsulated by a standard ation of manufacturing services. 3.2 Key technologies of product platform 3.2.1 Module division technology The module division technology is mainly used in the following two aspects in the product platform for cloud manufacturing. Firstly, through the analysis of different functions and specifications of product units, a series of functional modules is constructed and designed, and then different products can be formed through the selection and combination of modules to meet the various needs of the market [27]. Secondly, complex tasks are quickly divided into several schedulable subtasks. Then, a mapping rela- tionship between completing tasks in the cloud manufac- turing environment is created. Finally, each subtask user is coordinated to complete this task [28]. In the task division process, the following principles should be followed: task decomposability, moderate granularity, task independence, time additivity, and cost additivity. Fig. 5 Schema of the manufacturing equipment 123 338 W. Wei et al. 3.2.2 Product platform parameterized design technology 3.3 Key technologies of product collaborative design Parameterized design technology is a typical technology of 3.3.1 Dynamic monitoring technology the product platform. Firstly, the parameterized design data received from the user interaction interface are processed, The product platform for cloud manufacturing is a dynamic and the parameters driven for the structural model are service system. Dynamic monitoring is an essential func- generated according to the parameter transfer relationship. tion to ensure the efficient completion of platform services Then, the newly generated module parameters are entered [30]. The dynamic monitoring of the product design plat- into the corresponding model database to modify a new form for cloud manufacturing includes three aspects: col- product’s 3D model and 2D drawings. laborative process monitoring, dynamic resource monitoring, and system fault monitoring. 3.2.3 Product configuration technology (i) Collaborative process monitoring. In the cloud manufacturing environment, conflicting behaviors The product configuration system for cloud manufacturing are detected at each coordinated stage. An intel- resources consists of five main modules to enable product ligent conflict-detection model for the cloud configuration: visualization and configuration engines, manufacturing service model is established to product assessment, user interface and cloud manufactur- effectively monitor various conflicts in the design ing servers [29]. The relationship between product con- process and ensure that the design tasks are figuration and manufacturing cloud services is shown in completed efficiently. Fig. 7. (ii) Dynamic resource monitoring. This is mainly used The manufacturing cloud service supports the product to build an extensible resource monitoring frame- configuration. After responding to the system request, the work that meets the needs of different types of manufacturing cloud service sends the required product- resources, and to study flexible and efficient related data to the system. When the product configuration resource monitoring strategies. The dynamic is completed, the final product specification and related monitoring of resources facilitates the reduction information can be submitted for further processing. of resource monitoring costs and the timely The purpose of the configuration engine is to generate detection and diagnosis of resource failures. valid product specifications based on user input require- (iii) System fault monitoring. By establishing a mul- ments, with reference to mandatory configuration rules and tilevel monitoring mechanism, the system can constraints. The visualization engine provides dynamic automatically predict and eliminate certain emer- web-based product visualization to view and manipulate gencies such as network communication failures 3D product models to support product configuration. User and the sudden exits of designers. Faults are interaction with the system is used to receive user-defined eliminated in a timely manner through corre- requirements and view configuration feedback. sponding fault tolerance, migration, and recovery strategies to ensure uninterrupted operation of the system. 3.3.2 System security technology The product platform for cloud manufacturing has a high degree of openness, which means that system security issues are crucial. During the operation of the platform, it is necessary to ensure that the task is completed efficiently, but also to avoid the leakage of user data and design data. At the same time, it is also necessary to prevent attacks from various types of Trojan horses. Therefore, the system security technology mainly solves the following problems. Firstly, the number of users on the platform is huge, and users are dynamically added and deleted during the task. This is a test of the security of the platform. Secondly, in the task coordination process, on the Fig. 7 Relationship between product configuration and manufactur- one hand, it is necessary to grant the user the minimum ing cloud services 123 Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing 339 authority required to complete the tasks, but also to avoid The new concept of ‘‘MaaS’’ is a service through the excessive authorization. On the other hand, data consis- entire life cycle of argumentation, design, fabrication, tency must be guaranteed during the entire task execution experiment, simulation, and integration. This application process. example is a public cloud manufacturing service platform. It is characterized as being available from a third-party service provider, and is used to realize the sharing and 4 Case study and discussion optimal allocation of all manufacturing resources and capabilities owned by different enterprises and organiza- 4.1 Overview of structure tions, especially for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A good product design model can increase the efficiency Based on the research of the product platform archi- and quality, and decrease the cost and time of the entire tecture proposed in Sect. 2 of this paper, the system is product manufacturing process. This is important as pro- constructed according to the actual business situation of the duct and production demand changes rapidly in today’s enterprise, and its structure is shown in Fig. 8. market [31]. The following is a case study of a product design system for cloud manufacturing that delivers out- 4.2 System functions standing performance throughout the product life cycle. Figure 8 shows that IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS still provide Based on the proposed framework and key technologies, a important services for this product platform for cloud cloud-based product platform was developed for a com- manufacturing. The storage, sensor, and other capabilities pany. The home page of the platform is shown in Fig. 9. are provided as a service in IaaS. Various platforms are The product platform currently provides five main services: provided in PaaS. SaaS is a cloud computing service. The user data management service, product management ser- application example is a product platform for cloud man- vice, resources management service, conflict resolution ufacturing. Cloud computing is the key technology to service, and system security service. support the product platform for cloud manufacturing. The user data management service refers to the autho- SaaS provides service in which the software runs on the rization and management of user rights. This is achieved by cloud, and there is no need to install the application on the the user’s role assignment. Different roles are granted client computer [20]. different levels of authority. For example, product Fig. 8 Actual architecture of the product platform for cloud manufacturing 123 340 W. Wei et al. designers’ rights are limited to product codesign applica- dynamic resources to eliminate system and internet faults tions, while product managers have full rights in product and recover the system in a timely manner. management services. Different roles interact through the This section focuses on the product management service information-sharing module within the platform. This ser- prototype of the product platform for cloud manufacturing. vice uses existing manufacturing information technologies A CNC milling machine is taken as an example to illustrate to realize data management. System security technology is the applications of product codesign, product comodeling, also used to ensure data security. and product cosimulation. The product management service works in the product The interface of the product collaborative design lifecycle management, including codesign, comodeling, application is shown in Fig. 10. This page shows the 3D cosimulation, and comanufacturing. This service was pri- structure and the 2D engineering drawings of the CNC marily developed by module division, product platform milling machine, as well as information about the model parameterized design, and product configuration tech- files. Click the ‘‘Open model’’ button to operate the Pro/ nologies to realize efficient product life cycle management. ENGINEER interface and read the 3D structure and 2D The resource management services are used to describe, drawings of the selected structure. After manually editing, encapsulate, manage, and apply resources, which enables click the ‘‘Save model’’ button to save it in the corre- users to utilize resources quickly and efficiently. The sponding model database. Click the ‘‘Read data’’ button to implementation of this service needs IoT technology to read the relevant parameters of the 3D model, and then intelligently sense physical resources and connect to the modify the structural model through the parameter-driven wider internet. method. Finally, click the ‘‘Update database’’ and ‘‘Re- In addition, unified classification and description of fresh’’ buttons. The system will automatically modify the resources technology are used to facilitate the integration, size parameters of the 3D model. This process realizes the sharing, and management of manufacturing resources. parametric customization of the product. Virtualization of resource technology is used to virtual The interface of the product collaborative modeling manufacturing resources and encapsulate them into ser- application is shown in Fig. 11. Firstly, according to a vices. The conflict resolution service mainly provides demand analysis of users, the series of CNC milling applications such as detection and classification, the for- machines are determined. The parameter, structural, and mulation of resolution strategies, resolution of task allo- auxiliary structure characteristics in each module of the cation, and intelligent processing for conflicts generated CNC miller are determined, and different structural module during system operation. The system security service is codes are selected. Then, the modules are combined and applied to dynamically monitor all parameters of the sys- selected to quickly design new CNC milling products. Finally, the main structural module of the CNC miller is tem during the operation process to ensure the security of various data in the platform and to prevent attacks of modified and saved, and the assembly of the structural various types of Trojans or viruses. The services of conflict modules forms a CNC milling machine. resolution and system security use dynamic monitoring The interface of the product collaborative simulation technology to monitor the collaborative process and application is shown in Fig. 12. Importing the model of the CNC milling machine, applying loads and constraints, and Fig. 9 Home page of product platform for cloud manufacturing Fig. 10 Interface of product collaborative design 123 Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing 341 Table 2 Time required for A, B, and C to assign tasks Company Time to assign tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 At 4.5 7.5 12 14 16 20 Ac 5 6 8 9 11 12 Bt 3 7 11 12 18 22.5 Bc 4 5.5 8 9 10 12.5 Ct 4.5 7 10 13 17 22 Cc 4 6 7 8 10 12 cloud manufacturing model. Three manufacturing compa- Fig. 11 Page of collaboration modeling in the product platform for nies A, B, and C located in Beijing that used this system cloud manufacturing were selected as research objects. With permission, the research team entered the MES systems and databases of postprocessing can all be achieved through the command these companies, and the relevant data of A, B, and C flow. The task number, task name, and other information before and after applying the system were collected. can be edited by the user. At the same time, the end time of The data are listed in Tables 2 and 3. At means that the task can be set. The system will dynamically call Company A is in the traditional manufacturing mode; Ac related resources based on the end time, such as the number means that Company A is in the cloud manufacturing of CPUs used by the server in the calculation process, to mode, and so on. The average value of the three compa- ensure that the task is completed on time. When the task is nies’ mission times is used as an evaluation basis. Because completed, the results of the simulation analysis are dis- the amount of data is too large, the key node data are played on the interface. The meshing results of the CNC selected to draw a chart to compare the two manufacturing milling machine and the static analysis results are shown in modes. Fig. 12. The analysis results can be output as HTML files. The processed data are plotted as a graph shown in Fig. 13. The scatter in the first part is the average of the 4.3 Comparison and analysis three companies’ mission times, and the curve is fitted by scatter coordinates. The graph in the second part shows the In this study, the task assignation time and task completion difference in time required for an enterprise to assign a task time are used as indicators to measure the efficiency of the in two manufacturing modes. In the initial stage, owing to traditional manufacturing model and the efficiency of the the complex operating mechanism of cloud manufacturing, the response speed is not as good as that of traditional manufacturing. When the amount of tasks reaches a certain value, the computational advantage of the cloud manu- facturing is observed. Table 3 Time required for A, B, and C to complete tasks Company Time to complete tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 At 10 14 24 38 48 62 Ac 14 15 18 23 32 42 Bt 813 203548 63 Bc 13 15 19 24 30.5 38 Ct 10 14 22 36 46 60 Cc 12 16 18 22 31 39 Fig. 12 Collaboration simulation page of the product platform for cloud manufacturing 123 342 W. Wei et al. Fig. 13 Differences of time to assign and complete the task based on two manufacturing modes article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless 5 Conclusions indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended In this study, a product platform model based on cloud use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted manufacturing was considered more suitable for current use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons. market development needs. On this basis, a product plat- org/licenses/by/4.0/. form architecture for cloud manufacturing was proposed, and the key technologies involved in platform construction were discussed and analyzed. The product platform for References cloud manufacturing proposed in this paper is fused and expanded to the traditional product platform, and it sup- 1. Li BH, Lin Z, Lei R et al (2011) Further discussion on cloud ports business collaboration between distributed enter- manufacturing. Comput Integr Manuf Syst 17(3):449–457 2. Li B, Zhang L, Chai X (2010) Introduction to cloud manufac- prises, which share standardized design, manufacturing, turing. ZTE. Communications 8(4):6–9 information, and technology resources related to product 3. Golightly D, Sharples S, Patel H et al (2016) Manufacturing in development. Based on the research, a system prototype of the cloud: a human factors perspective. 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Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing

Advances in Manufacturing , Volume 8 (3) – Sep 15, 2020

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Adv. Manuf. (2020) 8:331–343 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40436-020-00306-1 1 1 1 • • Wei Wei Feng Zhou Peng-Fei Liang Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 9 December 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published online: 15 May 2020 The Author(s) 2020 Abstract Cloud manufacturing is emerging as a new telecommunication networks, broadcast and television manufacturing paradigm and an integrated technology. To networks, and wireless broadband networks based on the adapt to the increasing challenges of the traditional man- above three service models. Cloud manufacturing inte- ufacturing industry transforming toward service-oriented grates and develops existing manufacturing information and innovative manufacturing, this paper proposes a pro- technologies (such as computer-aided design, production, duct platform architecture based on cloud manufacturing. experiment, simulation, management, and integration) and Firstly, a framework for the product platform for cloud emerging information technologies (such as cloud com- manufacturing was built. The proposed architecture is puting, IoT, service computing, intelligent science, and composed of five layers: resource, cloud technology, cloud high-efficiency computing). service, application, and user layers. Then, several key Various types of manufacturing resources and capabili- enabling technologies for forming the product platform ties are virtualized and made service-oriented to form a were studied. Finally, the product platform for cloud service cloud pool that can be unified and centralized for manufacturing built by a company was taken as an appli- optimization management. The core of cloud manufactur- cation example to illustrate the architecture and functions ing is to share manufacturing resources and capabilities. of the system. The validity and superiority of the archi- The key to cloud manufacturing is to build a public product tecture were verified. platform for cloud manufacturing to realize the unified management of manufacturing resources and capabilities Keywords Cloud manufacturing  Cloud service  Product that can be accessed on demand by users through the cloud platform  Architecture  Product collaborative design anywhere and anytime. Therefore, the efficient sharing and utilization of resources is realized, and the lifecycle of manufacturing is intelligently completed [2]. The product platform for cloud manufacturing is a 1 Introduction complex system. Therefore, construction of the platform Cloud computing provides three types of services: software needs key enabling technologies to solve problems and as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and maintain the efficiency and sustainability of the system. infrastructure as a service (IaaS). Cloud manufacturing [1] Golightly et al. [3] discussed the technology of collabora- is a new manufacturing model developed from the concept tion in cloud manufacturing environments. The IoT, cloud of ‘‘manufacturing as a service (MaaS)’’ derived from computing, and high-performance computing technologies networks such as the internet and internet of things (IoT), are the current emerging information technologies that are integrated and developed with cloud manufacturing [4, 5]. Cloud manufacturing still needs technologies that can & Wei Wei directly interact with machine tools and other physical weiwei@buaa.edu.cn devices. In recent years, with the development of computer technology, users have had increasingly higher requirement School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang for interactive interfaces. Therefore, technologies for the University, Beijing 100191, People’s Republic of China 123 332 W. Wei et al. user terminal to utilize cloud services are also very A product platform for cloud manufacturing can break important for cloud manufacturing (e.g., intelligent user through the limitations of the boundaries and resources of a interface [6] and human-computer interaction [7]). company and make users transparently access rich In the research on cloud manufacturing, MIT conducted resources. The platform provides a support environment for a DICE research project and developed a product design efficiently sharing the resources of product design and can system based on cloud manufacturing to provide a shared improve the utilization of manufacturing resources and working space for designers so they could participate in shorten the product development cycle. In addition, the any part of the design process [8]. Stanford University platform will be of great significance in improving the conducted the SHARE project, where team members competitiveness of the product market and accelerating the shared design knowledge and ideas through the cloud [9]. transformation of manufacturing from product oriented to The Boeing Company, the largest aircraft manufacturer in service oriented. the world, adopted internet-based collaborative design to In this research, a product platform model based on manage manufacturing companies in more than 40 coun- cloud manufacturing is proposed. To better adapt to the tries and regions around the world and collaboratively increasing challenges of the traditional manufacturing build Boeing 787 passenger aircraft. This approach short- industry transforming toward service-oriented and inno- ened the development cycle by 30% and reduced costs by vative manufacturing, this paper proposes an architecture 50% [10]. of the product platform for cloud manufacturing and The team, led by Bo-hu Li, an academician at the Chi- advanced manufacturing technologies that contribute to the nese Academy of Engineering, conducted research on evolution of the cloud-based product platform. Moreover, a cloud design and simulation and built a cloud simulation product platform for cloud manufacturing built by a com- platform that was applied to the collaborative design of pany is adopted as an example to illustrate the architecture aircraft virtual prototypes [11]. The research results of and functions of the system. The validity and superiority of Katzmaier and Hanneghan [12] demonstrated that the the architecture are verified. internet-based design pattern had overtaken the original design pattern in terms of versatility, diversity, and synergy. 2 Architecture of product platform for cloud Cloud manufacturing not only takes advantage of the manufacturing operating model of cloud computing but also inherits the advantages of advanced manufacturing models such as At present, improving the design efficiency of complex networked and flexible manufacturing [13]. A comparison products, ensuring product design quality, reducing product between cloud manufacturing and other advanced manu- design cost, and satisfying the diversified needs of users are facturing models is shown in Table 1. The efficient sharing important considerations for the survival and development of large manufacturing resources, good system availability, of companies [15]. and high user participation make the cloud manufacturing Product design is the key to product quality and manu- model a pivotal innovation in advanced manufacturing facturing costs. The developing model based on the product models [14]. platform can make use of high-precision equipment, senior experts, design knowledge, and other resources, and can Table 1 Comparison of characteristics of three advanced manufacturing models Flexible manufacturing Network manufacturing Cloud manufacturing System functions Cooperation Resource sharing/cooperation Resource sharing/resource efficiency/cooperation System openness Many constraints, poor openness Better openness Highly open Resource type Organization, human, Equipment, people, Materials, equipment, software, technology materials, network, hardware, logistics, human, knowledge information 9 12 15 Data amount GB level (1GB = 10 B) TB level (1TB = 10 B) PB level (1PB = 10 B) Resource usage Customization Dynamic configuration On-demand dynamic configuration User participation Moderate Moderate High Collaboration scope Several companies Companies in several industries Companies in almost every industry Key technologies FMT/CAD/AI Service/ASP/Globus Service/Cloud computing/Internet of Things 123 Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing 333 also organize and manage these resources effectively to technology resources related to product development and improve the utilization of resources [16]. optimize their utilization. Although the system environment constructed by a tra- ditional distributed network can complete collaborative 2.1 Resource layer work, the demand of the user for system dynamics cannot be satisfied owing to the restrictions of the static nature of The resource layer is the physical foundation of the product software and hardware systems [17]. The fundamental platform for cloud manufacturing [18]. The resources in the feature of a cloud manufacturing service system is elimi- platform mainly refer to the collection of software, hard- nating the information island of manufacturing resources ware, computing power, knowledge, and standards for the efficient sharing and on-demand allocation of involved in the entire lifecycle of the product. In the cloud resources. A network environment with dynamic adapt- manufacturing environment, users select and utilize ability and expansibility constructed by the cloud manu- resources that are beneficial to complete tasks among a facturing system can fully share resources and reduce costs. wealth of resources. In the traditional networked manu- The traditional product platform architecture is divided facturing model, to effectively evaluate and control the into resource, tool, and application layers. The traditional execution of collaborative processes, users need to have manufacturing model focuses on pooling resources and certain network knowledge to understand the topology and completing product development tasks as independently as layout of resources. possible. In essence, the product development process is For a cloud manufacturing environment with massive completed by multiparty cooperation, and the computing resources, the system dynamically and intelligently allo- resources are significant. The actual application require- cates related resources to users. Therefore, the cloud ments have not been met by traditional product platforms. manufacturing environment reduces requirements of the Therefore, a model based on the product platform and network knowledge of participants and the imbalance of cloud manufacturing technology was developed, and a resources (overload or idle), and improves resource product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing was utilization. proposed. The framework structure of a product platform for cloud 2.2 Cloud technology layer manufacturing is shown in Fig. 1. The product platform for cloud manufacturing, which supports business collabora- In the product platform for cloud manufacturing, the key to tion between distributed enterprises, is fused and expanded achieving collaboration is to solve the resource-sharing based on its original architecture. It can efficiently share problem in the cloud manufacturing environment. Cross- standardized design, manufacturing, information, and sector, cross-enterprise, and even cross-regional resource Fig. 1 Architecture of product platform based on cloud manufacturing 123 334 W. Wei et al. sharing can avoid repeating utilization of resources, service automatically adds or deletes users accord- increase resource utilization, and reduce product cost. The ing to the task execution requirement, and records resources have features such as diversity, heterogeneity, the users’ task execution history to ensure the and particularity. To effectively share these resources, the efficient and orderly execution of the tasks. (ii) Standardized management services. Standardized first issue that needs to be solved is the description of these design resources for unified standards and encapsulation. management is the prerequisite to providing efficient services with resources. The establish- The purpose of the cloud technology layer is to shield the heterogeneity and complexity of resources, access the ment of unified standards for different resources can facilitate the registration and invocation of cloud manufacturing service platform, and provide a uni- fied interface to realize the efficient sharing and collabo- resources and reduce the response time of resource ration of resources. Various approaches can shield the services. The establishment of evaluation stan- heterogeneity and complexity of resources, including dards for service quality and the monitoring of resource virtualization, resource management, resource changes in service quality can eliminate disqual- awareness, and IoT technologies. ified resources and ensure that the platform can provide high-quality design services. (i) Resource virtualization technology. The core (iii) Task assignment service. Task assignment is technology of cloud manufacturing is resource critical for collaboration. The product platform virtualization technology. This can realize the for cloud manufacturing intelligently decomposes comprehensive interconnection, sensing, and feed- complex tasks and allocates tasks according to the back control of manufacturing resources, and capabilities of service resources. transform manufacturing resources into logical (iv) Conflict resolution service. Collaboration is the manufacturing resources to support the virtual process of continuous conflict generation and cloud manufacturing service environment with a elimination. For example, resources that are high level of resource utilization, agility, reliabil- accessed by different users will inevitably create ity, security, and availability [19]. conflicts in time. The method of effectively (ii) Resource management technology. In the product eliminating conflicts and ensuring the efficiency collaborative design system of cloud manufactur- of resource access is an important issue that needs ing services, resource management technology to be considered. can realize the discovery and rapid sharing of (v) System security service. The security of the massive resources in the cloud, and fully monitor system is a prerequisite for normal operation, the service status of resources to ensure the including user information security, design data smooth and efficient operation of manufacturing security, and access process security. services [20]. (iii) Resource awareness technology and IoT technol- ogy. In a cloud manufacturing system, various 2.4 Application layer manufacturing resources and capabilities can be intelligently sensed and connected into the wider The application layer is the most intuitive presentation internet, and automatically managed and con- layer of the product platform for cloud manufacturing. It trolled using resource awareness technology and implements functions by establishing corresponding inter- IoT technologies (e.g., radio frequency identifica- faces. Users can also combine and reconfigure existing tion (RFID), wired and wireless sensor networks, functions to meet the needs of collaborative tasks. This and embedded systems) [21]. study introduces product collaborative design, modeling, simulation, and manufacturing. Specific functions will be introduced in detail in Sect. 4. 2.3 Cloud service layer 2.5 User layer The cloud service layer is critical to the operation of the product platform for cloud manufacturing. It mainly The user layer is the portal layer of the product platform. includes services such as user data management, stan- The user layer provides the user with a working environ- dardized management, task allocation, conflict resolution, ment through the network so that users can access the and system security. product platform anytime and anywhere. Users can per- form resource access, service invocation, task submission, (i) User data management service. In the collabora- tive work process, the user data management and task monitoring based on the task needs. In addition, 123 Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing 335 users can query information such as the service history of intelligent operator of services such as intelligent interac- the resources and select the most suitable resource to tion and collaboration between services. (iii) The users of minimize the cost. In recent years, with the development of cloud manufacturing are mainly internet users, and IoT computer technology, users have had higher and higher technology can support the communications of these users. requirements for interactive interfaces. Therefore, a good interactive interface is also very important for the product 3.1.2 Cloud service technology platform for cloud manufacturing. Cloud service technology is the core technology of the product platform for cloud manufacturing. Cloud service 3 Key technologies of product platform for cloud technology uses technologies such as the IoT and virtual- manufacturing ization to encapsulate distributed cloud resources and capabilities based on knowledge. This involves the fusion The product platform for cloud manufacturing is a complex of structured experience, value, relevant information, and system. Therefore, the construction of the platform needs expert insight through the entire life cycle of manufactur- to be based on technologies such as cloud manufacturing, ing (such as manufacturing domain knowledge, design product family and product platforms, and product col- knowledge, rule knowledge, process knowledge, and laborative design. The specific details are shown in Fig. 2. model knowledge), and then accesses cloud platform. The key technologies that are more important are described Manufacturing resources and capabilities, primarily below. referring to software, hardware, computing power, knowl- edge, and standards involved in the entire life cycle of the 3.1 Key technologies of cloud manufacturing product, are highly virtualized into cloud services and provide users with manufacturing lifecycle applications in 3.1.1 IoT technology the form of services. The process of cloud service forma- tion is the process of cloud manufacturing resources and IoT technology is one of the key technologies for cloud capabilities being serviced [17]. The relationship of manufacturing. There are three levels of application of IoT resources, manufacturing cloud, and cloud services in the technology in cloud manufacturing [22]. (i) The IoT is used cloud manufacturing system is reflected in Fig. 3. to realize the perception of various manufacturing equip- In cloud manufacturing services, besides the computa- ments, internet connections, acquisitions, and automatic tional resources (such as the server, storage, network, and control. (ii) The IoT is used to make logistics and energy in software [20]) involved in cloud computing, all manufac- intelligent manufacturing systems as well, and support the turing resources and capabilities are provided for the user Fig. 2 Key technologies of the product platform for cloud manufacturing 123 336 W. Wei et al. in different service models based on IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS, including the following models: argumentation as a ser- vice, design as a service, fabrication as a service, experi- ment as a service, simulation as a service, and integration as a service [16]. The computing resources in cloud manufacturing resources are similar to those in cloud computing. The difference is that cloud manufacturing resources are not limited to computing resources but extend to a wider range of resources including manufacturing equipment resources. The difference and relationships between cloud computing and cloud manufacturing are illustrated in Fig. 4 [20]. 3.1.3 Resource management technology Fig. 4 Relationship between cloud computing and cloud manufacturing Resource management technology is a key and difficult point for the realization of the product platform for cloud manufacturing, the extensible markup language manufacturing. The cloud manufacturing system is an (XML), web service ontology language (OWL-S), environment that integrates manufacturing resources and and unified modeling language (UML) can be capabilities, including many heterogeneous and off-site used in the data layer, semantic layer, and logical resources. Effectively managing these resources is a major layer, respectively, to establish corresponding challenge for the system. Therefore, resource management extensible description templates [23–25]. technology needs to involve the following aspects. Figures 5 and 6 present an example of the (i) Unified classification and description of resources. manufacturing equipment. The description is Distribution, heterogeneity, autonomy, and quan- implemented in the XML language, which is tity are the characteristics of manufacturing popular for data exchange and interoperable web resources in a cloud manufacturing service envi- applications. In addition, in the process of estab- ronment. Various types of resources that may be lishing the description of manufacturing used in the cloud manufacturing process need to resources, the requirements of resource discovery, be uniformly classified and described to facilitate integration, and matching need to be fully con- the integration, sharing, and management of sidered, and the resources need to be described as manufacturing resources in this environment. For completely as possible. various resources and tasks of cloud Figure 5 shows the XML schema of the Fig. 3 Relationship of resources, cloud services and manufacturing clouds in cloud manufacturing system 123 Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing 337 manufacturing equipment. The ProfileInfo that appears in Fig. 5 describes the basic information, and the ManageInfo describes the utilization of this manufacturing equipment. The schema can be extended or customized when they are applied to other kinds of manufacturing resources. Figure 6 shows the XML document of a machine. The content of the document is generated by a cell view that reflects the manufacturing resource description of the machine. (ii) Virtualization of resources. Resources need to be virtualized before they are deployed to cloud manufacturing systems. Virtualization of Fig. 6 XML document of the equipment resources can shield the off-site distribution and heterogeneity of resources so that they can encapsulation operation using a cloud service achieve unified access on the network [19]. The template [26]. key to the virtualization of resources is to (iii) Resource discovery. For the massive resources in transform the heterogeneous manufacturing the product platform for cloud manufacturing, the resources into homogeneous cloud services. rapid sharing of resources must be achieved Resource virtualization can be implemented in through a good discovery mechanism so that two phases: virtual description and service encap- users can easily search for the required service sulation. Virtual description aims to build a resources. Therefore, research on an efficient resource description specification that represents resource search algorithm and a historical task- the manufacturing resource information compre- based resource discovery model is important for hensively in a unified virtual resource data model. solving the problem. Service encapsulation extracts functional features (iv) Resource binding strategy. The dynamic binding of manufacturing resources from the virtual of resources intelligently matches and binds the resource data model and encapsulates them as services with corresponding resources and moni- cloud services to interoperate with the cloud tors the service status of resources throughout the platform in a uniform interface. The resource process to ensure the smooth and efficient oper- descriptions are encapsulated by a standard ation of manufacturing services. 3.2 Key technologies of product platform 3.2.1 Module division technology The module division technology is mainly used in the following two aspects in the product platform for cloud manufacturing. Firstly, through the analysis of different functions and specifications of product units, a series of functional modules is constructed and designed, and then different products can be formed through the selection and combination of modules to meet the various needs of the market [27]. Secondly, complex tasks are quickly divided into several schedulable subtasks. Then, a mapping rela- tionship between completing tasks in the cloud manufac- turing environment is created. Finally, each subtask user is coordinated to complete this task [28]. In the task division process, the following principles should be followed: task decomposability, moderate granularity, task independence, time additivity, and cost additivity. Fig. 5 Schema of the manufacturing equipment 123 338 W. Wei et al. 3.2.2 Product platform parameterized design technology 3.3 Key technologies of product collaborative design Parameterized design technology is a typical technology of 3.3.1 Dynamic monitoring technology the product platform. Firstly, the parameterized design data received from the user interaction interface are processed, The product platform for cloud manufacturing is a dynamic and the parameters driven for the structural model are service system. Dynamic monitoring is an essential func- generated according to the parameter transfer relationship. tion to ensure the efficient completion of platform services Then, the newly generated module parameters are entered [30]. The dynamic monitoring of the product design plat- into the corresponding model database to modify a new form for cloud manufacturing includes three aspects: col- product’s 3D model and 2D drawings. laborative process monitoring, dynamic resource monitoring, and system fault monitoring. 3.2.3 Product configuration technology (i) Collaborative process monitoring. In the cloud manufacturing environment, conflicting behaviors The product configuration system for cloud manufacturing are detected at each coordinated stage. An intel- resources consists of five main modules to enable product ligent conflict-detection model for the cloud configuration: visualization and configuration engines, manufacturing service model is established to product assessment, user interface and cloud manufactur- effectively monitor various conflicts in the design ing servers [29]. The relationship between product con- process and ensure that the design tasks are figuration and manufacturing cloud services is shown in completed efficiently. Fig. 7. (ii) Dynamic resource monitoring. This is mainly used The manufacturing cloud service supports the product to build an extensible resource monitoring frame- configuration. After responding to the system request, the work that meets the needs of different types of manufacturing cloud service sends the required product- resources, and to study flexible and efficient related data to the system. When the product configuration resource monitoring strategies. The dynamic is completed, the final product specification and related monitoring of resources facilitates the reduction information can be submitted for further processing. of resource monitoring costs and the timely The purpose of the configuration engine is to generate detection and diagnosis of resource failures. valid product specifications based on user input require- (iii) System fault monitoring. By establishing a mul- ments, with reference to mandatory configuration rules and tilevel monitoring mechanism, the system can constraints. The visualization engine provides dynamic automatically predict and eliminate certain emer- web-based product visualization to view and manipulate gencies such as network communication failures 3D product models to support product configuration. User and the sudden exits of designers. Faults are interaction with the system is used to receive user-defined eliminated in a timely manner through corre- requirements and view configuration feedback. sponding fault tolerance, migration, and recovery strategies to ensure uninterrupted operation of the system. 3.3.2 System security technology The product platform for cloud manufacturing has a high degree of openness, which means that system security issues are crucial. During the operation of the platform, it is necessary to ensure that the task is completed efficiently, but also to avoid the leakage of user data and design data. At the same time, it is also necessary to prevent attacks from various types of Trojan horses. Therefore, the system security technology mainly solves the following problems. Firstly, the number of users on the platform is huge, and users are dynamically added and deleted during the task. This is a test of the security of the platform. Secondly, in the task coordination process, on the Fig. 7 Relationship between product configuration and manufactur- one hand, it is necessary to grant the user the minimum ing cloud services 123 Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing 339 authority required to complete the tasks, but also to avoid The new concept of ‘‘MaaS’’ is a service through the excessive authorization. On the other hand, data consis- entire life cycle of argumentation, design, fabrication, tency must be guaranteed during the entire task execution experiment, simulation, and integration. This application process. example is a public cloud manufacturing service platform. It is characterized as being available from a third-party service provider, and is used to realize the sharing and 4 Case study and discussion optimal allocation of all manufacturing resources and capabilities owned by different enterprises and organiza- 4.1 Overview of structure tions, especially for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A good product design model can increase the efficiency Based on the research of the product platform archi- and quality, and decrease the cost and time of the entire tecture proposed in Sect. 2 of this paper, the system is product manufacturing process. This is important as pro- constructed according to the actual business situation of the duct and production demand changes rapidly in today’s enterprise, and its structure is shown in Fig. 8. market [31]. The following is a case study of a product design system for cloud manufacturing that delivers out- 4.2 System functions standing performance throughout the product life cycle. Figure 8 shows that IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS still provide Based on the proposed framework and key technologies, a important services for this product platform for cloud cloud-based product platform was developed for a com- manufacturing. The storage, sensor, and other capabilities pany. The home page of the platform is shown in Fig. 9. are provided as a service in IaaS. Various platforms are The product platform currently provides five main services: provided in PaaS. SaaS is a cloud computing service. The user data management service, product management ser- application example is a product platform for cloud man- vice, resources management service, conflict resolution ufacturing. Cloud computing is the key technology to service, and system security service. support the product platform for cloud manufacturing. The user data management service refers to the autho- SaaS provides service in which the software runs on the rization and management of user rights. This is achieved by cloud, and there is no need to install the application on the the user’s role assignment. Different roles are granted client computer [20]. different levels of authority. For example, product Fig. 8 Actual architecture of the product platform for cloud manufacturing 123 340 W. Wei et al. designers’ rights are limited to product codesign applica- dynamic resources to eliminate system and internet faults tions, while product managers have full rights in product and recover the system in a timely manner. management services. Different roles interact through the This section focuses on the product management service information-sharing module within the platform. This ser- prototype of the product platform for cloud manufacturing. vice uses existing manufacturing information technologies A CNC milling machine is taken as an example to illustrate to realize data management. System security technology is the applications of product codesign, product comodeling, also used to ensure data security. and product cosimulation. The product management service works in the product The interface of the product collaborative design lifecycle management, including codesign, comodeling, application is shown in Fig. 10. This page shows the 3D cosimulation, and comanufacturing. This service was pri- structure and the 2D engineering drawings of the CNC marily developed by module division, product platform milling machine, as well as information about the model parameterized design, and product configuration tech- files. Click the ‘‘Open model’’ button to operate the Pro/ nologies to realize efficient product life cycle management. ENGINEER interface and read the 3D structure and 2D The resource management services are used to describe, drawings of the selected structure. After manually editing, encapsulate, manage, and apply resources, which enables click the ‘‘Save model’’ button to save it in the corre- users to utilize resources quickly and efficiently. The sponding model database. Click the ‘‘Read data’’ button to implementation of this service needs IoT technology to read the relevant parameters of the 3D model, and then intelligently sense physical resources and connect to the modify the structural model through the parameter-driven wider internet. method. Finally, click the ‘‘Update database’’ and ‘‘Re- In addition, unified classification and description of fresh’’ buttons. The system will automatically modify the resources technology are used to facilitate the integration, size parameters of the 3D model. This process realizes the sharing, and management of manufacturing resources. parametric customization of the product. Virtualization of resource technology is used to virtual The interface of the product collaborative modeling manufacturing resources and encapsulate them into ser- application is shown in Fig. 11. Firstly, according to a vices. The conflict resolution service mainly provides demand analysis of users, the series of CNC milling applications such as detection and classification, the for- machines are determined. The parameter, structural, and mulation of resolution strategies, resolution of task allo- auxiliary structure characteristics in each module of the cation, and intelligent processing for conflicts generated CNC miller are determined, and different structural module during system operation. The system security service is codes are selected. Then, the modules are combined and applied to dynamically monitor all parameters of the sys- selected to quickly design new CNC milling products. Finally, the main structural module of the CNC miller is tem during the operation process to ensure the security of various data in the platform and to prevent attacks of modified and saved, and the assembly of the structural various types of Trojans or viruses. The services of conflict modules forms a CNC milling machine. resolution and system security use dynamic monitoring The interface of the product collaborative simulation technology to monitor the collaborative process and application is shown in Fig. 12. Importing the model of the CNC milling machine, applying loads and constraints, and Fig. 9 Home page of product platform for cloud manufacturing Fig. 10 Interface of product collaborative design 123 Product platform architecture for cloud manufacturing 341 Table 2 Time required for A, B, and C to assign tasks Company Time to assign tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 At 4.5 7.5 12 14 16 20 Ac 5 6 8 9 11 12 Bt 3 7 11 12 18 22.5 Bc 4 5.5 8 9 10 12.5 Ct 4.5 7 10 13 17 22 Cc 4 6 7 8 10 12 cloud manufacturing model. Three manufacturing compa- Fig. 11 Page of collaboration modeling in the product platform for nies A, B, and C located in Beijing that used this system cloud manufacturing were selected as research objects. With permission, the research team entered the MES systems and databases of postprocessing can all be achieved through the command these companies, and the relevant data of A, B, and C flow. The task number, task name, and other information before and after applying the system were collected. can be edited by the user. At the same time, the end time of The data are listed in Tables 2 and 3. At means that the task can be set. The system will dynamically call Company A is in the traditional manufacturing mode; Ac related resources based on the end time, such as the number means that Company A is in the cloud manufacturing of CPUs used by the server in the calculation process, to mode, and so on. The average value of the three compa- ensure that the task is completed on time. When the task is nies’ mission times is used as an evaluation basis. Because completed, the results of the simulation analysis are dis- the amount of data is too large, the key node data are played on the interface. The meshing results of the CNC selected to draw a chart to compare the two manufacturing milling machine and the static analysis results are shown in modes. Fig. 12. The analysis results can be output as HTML files. The processed data are plotted as a graph shown in Fig. 13. The scatter in the first part is the average of the 4.3 Comparison and analysis three companies’ mission times, and the curve is fitted by scatter coordinates. The graph in the second part shows the In this study, the task assignation time and task completion difference in time required for an enterprise to assign a task time are used as indicators to measure the efficiency of the in two manufacturing modes. In the initial stage, owing to traditional manufacturing model and the efficiency of the the complex operating mechanism of cloud manufacturing, the response speed is not as good as that of traditional manufacturing. When the amount of tasks reaches a certain value, the computational advantage of the cloud manu- facturing is observed. Table 3 Time required for A, B, and C to complete tasks Company Time to complete tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 At 10 14 24 38 48 62 Ac 14 15 18 23 32 42 Bt 813 203548 63 Bc 13 15 19 24 30.5 38 Ct 10 14 22 36 46 60 Cc 12 16 18 22 31 39 Fig. 12 Collaboration simulation page of the product platform for cloud manufacturing 123 342 W. Wei et al. Fig. 13 Differences of time to assign and complete the task based on two manufacturing modes article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless 5 Conclusions indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended In this study, a product platform model based on cloud use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted manufacturing was considered more suitable for current use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. 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Advances in ManufacturingSpringer Journals

Published: Sep 15, 2020

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