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Preliminary Evidence that Tolerance and Withdrawal Occur in Response to Ultra-processed Foods

Preliminary Evidence that Tolerance and Withdrawal Occur in Response to Ultra-processed Foods Purpose of ReviewFood addiction posits that the nature of ultra-processed food (UPF) contributes to addiction. Tolerance and withdrawal are core addiction symptoms that have received little attention in the food addiction literature. This review aimed to summarize evidence for tolerance and withdrawal in the UPF context.Recent FindingsFollowing repeated UPF consumption, animals show mesolimbic dopamine receptor downregulation and behavioral changes consistent with tolerance. Humans show weaker neural reward responses to UPF following frequent consumption. Following abstinence from UPF after heavy consumption, animals exhibit behavioral and neural indicators consistent with withdrawal. Humans report withdrawal symptoms when reducing UPF consumption, with the exception of a recent study that demonstrated symptom improvement during early abstinence.SummaryPreliminary evidence suggests that tolerance and withdrawal may occur in response to UPF. However, human research has been mostly limited to self-report and retrospective recall. Future experimental research is needed to further evaluate these constructs’ validity. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Addiction Reports Springer Journals

Preliminary Evidence that Tolerance and Withdrawal Occur in Response to Ultra-processed Foods

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022
eISSN
2196-2952
DOI
10.1007/s40429-022-00425-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose of ReviewFood addiction posits that the nature of ultra-processed food (UPF) contributes to addiction. Tolerance and withdrawal are core addiction symptoms that have received little attention in the food addiction literature. This review aimed to summarize evidence for tolerance and withdrawal in the UPF context.Recent FindingsFollowing repeated UPF consumption, animals show mesolimbic dopamine receptor downregulation and behavioral changes consistent with tolerance. Humans show weaker neural reward responses to UPF following frequent consumption. Following abstinence from UPF after heavy consumption, animals exhibit behavioral and neural indicators consistent with withdrawal. Humans report withdrawal symptoms when reducing UPF consumption, with the exception of a recent study that demonstrated symptom improvement during early abstinence.SummaryPreliminary evidence suggests that tolerance and withdrawal may occur in response to UPF. However, human research has been mostly limited to self-report and retrospective recall. Future experimental research is needed to further evaluate these constructs’ validity.

Journal

Current Addiction ReportsSpringer Journals

Published: Jul 13, 2022

Keywords: Withdrawal; Tolerance; Addiction; Substance-use disorders; Food addiction; Ultra-processed food

References