BackgroundExaggerated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and intestinal dysbiosis are key contributors to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) decreases NEC in preterm infants, but underlying mechanisms of protection remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that LGG alleviates dysbiosis and upregulates TLR inhibitors to protect against TLR-mediated gut injury.MethodsEffects of LGG (low- and high-dose) on intestinal pro-inflammatory TLR signaling and injury in neonatal mice subjected to formula feeding (FF) and NEC were determined. 16S sequencing of stool and expression of anti-TLR mediators SIGIRR (single immunoglobulin interleukin-1-related receptor) and A20 were analyzed.ResultsFF induced mild intestinal injury with increased expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Kupffer cell (KC) (mouse homolog of IL-8) compared to controls. LGG decreased IL-1β and KC in association with attenuated TLR signaling and increased SIGIRR and A20 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Low- and high-dose LGG had varying effects on gut microbiome despite both doses providing gut protection. Subsequent experiments of LGG on NEC revealed that pro-inflammatory TLR signaling and intestinal injury were also decreased, and SIGIRR and A20 expression increased, in a dose-dependent manner with LGG pre-treatment.ConclusionsLGG protects against intestinal TLR-mediated injury by upregulating TLR inhibitors without major changes in gut microbiome composition.
Pediatric Research – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 13, 2020
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