Microglia and macrophages of the central nervous system: the contribution of microglia priming and systemic inflammation to chronic neurodegeneration

Microglia and macrophages of the central nervous system: the contribution of microglia priming... Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), play an important role in CNS homeostasis during development, adulthood and ageing. Their phenotype and function have been widely studied, but most studies have focused on their local interactions in the CNS. Microglia are derived from a particular developmental niche, are long-lived, locally replaced and form a significant part of the communication route between the peripheral immune system and the CNS; all these components of microglia biology contribute to maintaining homeostasis. Microglia function is tightly regulated by the CNS microenvironment, and increasing evidence suggests that disturbances, such as neurodegeneration and ageing, can have profound consequences for microglial phenotype and function. We describe the possible biological mechanisms underlying the altered threshold for microglial activation, also known as ‘microglial priming’, seen in CNS disease and ageing and consider how priming may contribute to turning immune-to-brain communication from a homeostatic pathway into a maladaptive response that contributes to symptoms and progression of diseases of the CNS. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Seminars in Immunopathology Springer Journals

Microglia and macrophages of the central nervous system: the contribution of microglia priming and systemic inflammation to chronic neurodegeneration

Seminars in Immunopathology, Volume 35 (5) – Jun 4, 2013

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by The Author(s)
Subject
Biomedicine; Immunology; Internal Medicine
ISSN
1863-2297
eISSN
1863-2300
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00281-013-0382-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), play an important role in CNS homeostasis during development, adulthood and ageing. Their phenotype and function have been widely studied, but most studies have focused on their local interactions in the CNS. Microglia are derived from a particular developmental niche, are long-lived, locally replaced and form a significant part of the communication route between the peripheral immune system and the CNS; all these components of microglia biology contribute to maintaining homeostasis. Microglia function is tightly regulated by the CNS microenvironment, and increasing evidence suggests that disturbances, such as neurodegeneration and ageing, can have profound consequences for microglial phenotype and function. We describe the possible biological mechanisms underlying the altered threshold for microglial activation, also known as ‘microglial priming’, seen in CNS disease and ageing and consider how priming may contribute to turning immune-to-brain communication from a homeostatic pathway into a maladaptive response that contributes to symptoms and progression of diseases of the CNS.

Journal

Seminars in ImmunopathologySpringer Journals

Published: Jun 4, 2013

References

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