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Low-Temperature Detectors for CMB Imaging Arrays

Low-Temperature Detectors for CMB Imaging Arrays We review advances in low-temperature detector (LTD) arrays for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments, with a particular emphasis on imaging arrays. We briefly motivate the science case, which has spurred a large number of independent experimental efforts. We describe the challenges associated with CMB polarization measurements, and how these challenges impact LTD design. Key aspects of an ideal CMB polarization imaging array are developed and compared to the current state of the art. These aspects include dual-polarization sensitivity, background-limited detection over a 10:1 bandwidth ratio, and frequency-independent angular responses. Although existing technology lacks all of this capability, today’s CMB imaging arrays achieve many of these ideals and are highly advanced superconducting integrated circuits. Deployed arrays map the sky with pixels that contain elements for beam formation, polarization diplexing, passband definition in multiple frequency channels, and bolometric sensing. Several detector architectures are presented. We comment on the implementation of both transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors for CMB applications. Lastly, we discuss fabrication capability in the context of next-generation instruments that call for $$\sim 10^6$$ ∼ 10 6 sensors. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Low Temperature Physics Springer Journals

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply
Subject
Physics; Condensed Matter Physics; Characterization and Evaluation of Materials; Magnetism, Magnetic Materials
ISSN
0022-2291
eISSN
1573-7357
DOI
10.1007/s10909-018-2029-6
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

We review advances in low-temperature detector (LTD) arrays for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments, with a particular emphasis on imaging arrays. We briefly motivate the science case, which has spurred a large number of independent experimental efforts. We describe the challenges associated with CMB polarization measurements, and how these challenges impact LTD design. Key aspects of an ideal CMB polarization imaging array are developed and compared to the current state of the art. These aspects include dual-polarization sensitivity, background-limited detection over a 10:1 bandwidth ratio, and frequency-independent angular responses. Although existing technology lacks all of this capability, today’s CMB imaging arrays achieve many of these ideals and are highly advanced superconducting integrated circuits. Deployed arrays map the sky with pixels that contain elements for beam formation, polarization diplexing, passband definition in multiple frequency channels, and bolometric sensing. Several detector architectures are presented. We comment on the implementation of both transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors for CMB applications. Lastly, we discuss fabrication capability in the context of next-generation instruments that call for $$\sim 10^6$$ ∼ 10 6 sensors.

Journal

Journal of Low Temperature PhysicsSpringer Journals

Published: Aug 3, 2018

References