Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, known worldwide as Brazilian ginseng, has an important commercial value due to its pharmaceutical properties. In addition to the newly described karyological traits and the first estimation of DNA content, this study reports a protocol for the successful induction of tetraploidy. Natural diploid individuals (2n = 34) showed a symmetric karyotype, centromeric DAPI+ bands, one chromosome pair with a CMA+ band and 45S rDNA site and another with one 5S rDNA site. To induce chromosome duplication, small nodal buds were cultured in semi-solid MS-based medium with 2.22 μM BA, 2.69 μM NAA, and colchicine or oryzalin at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 μM for 1 or 2 weeks before being transferred to MS basal medium. The results showed that colchicine induced tetraploid plants, mainly after 1 week of exposure, whereas oryzalin treatment induced only mixoploid plants. The tetraploid plants exhibited twice the chromosome number and DNA content and twice the number of chromosome markers observed for the diploids. Chromosome duplication reduced the dry mass of the stems and roots of the polyploid plants compared to the diploids, and the stomatal density was also reduced on the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces of the polyploids. Additionally, the production of β-ecdysone was 50 % higher in the tetraploids than in the diploids. Thus, chromosome doubling showed that is possible to increase the content of β-ecdysone, highlighting the considerable potential of this technique to produce new cultivars with high commercial value.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 14, 2014
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