Educational Psychology Review [jepr] PP1042-edpr-475667 November 25, 2003 14:22 Style ﬁle version June 4th, 2002
Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, March 2004 (
Inherent Association Between Academic Delay
of Gratiﬁcation, Future Time Perspective, and
and Stuart A. Karabenick
We review the association between delay of gratiﬁcation and future time per-
spective (FTP), which can be incorporated within the theoretical perspective
of self-regulation of learning. We propose that delay of gratiﬁcation in aca-
demic contexts, along with facilitative beliefs about the future, increase the
likelihood of completing academic tasks. Discussed are (a) classic and cur-
rent theoretical views of delay of gratiﬁcation, (b) FTP and its association
with delay of gratiﬁcation, (c) evidence for the association between delay of
gratiﬁcation and FTP that enhances our understanding of academic success
from a self-regulated learning approach, and (d) implications for instruction,
and considerations of FTP for understanding achievement-related delay. Sug-
gestions for further research are also discussed.
KEY WORDS: future time perspective; delay of gratiﬁcation; self-regulated learning.
An ideal student who routinely goes home after school, has a snack,
studies until dinner (i.e., stays on task), then continues studying until bed-
time is likely more academically successful than one who is not as focused on
schoolwork. This goal-directed sequence of activities must often withstand
a context that includes an array of attractive distractions, such as watching
City University of New York, Graduate School, New York.
Psychology Department, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan.
Correspondence should be addressed to H´efer Bembenutty, City University of New York,
Educational Psychology Program, P. O. Box 932, New York, New York 10156; e-mail:
2004 Plenum Publishing Corporation