HIGH-TEMPERATURE SHS-MATERIALS IN RESOLVING THE PROBLEM
OF REPROCESSING TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL,
DOMESTIC, AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE
V. I. Uvarov,
V. É. Loryan,
I. P. Borovinskaya,
M. A. Ponomarev,
and A. R. Kachin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 8, pp. 38 – 42, August 2014.
Original article submitted April 29, 2014.
Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is used to prepare materials for lining a pyrolysis reactor
shaft and filter material for final cleaning of exhaust gases. The possibility is demonstrated in model mixes of
combining an SHS stage for cast fluorophlogopite and binding it with weak radioactive waste. A model is de
veloped for a waste treatment unit, including weakly radioactive (recycling waste), by pyrolysis with simulta
neous synthesis of SHS fluorophlogopite for binding and conserving radionuclides.
Keywords: pyrolysis reactor lining, filter material, SHS, cast fluorophlogopite, binding weakly radioactive
High-temperature plasma gasification of waste with liq-
uid slag removal attracts the attention of specialists by its
universality, since it provides effective treatment of many
wastes of complex morphological condition, such as organic
and mineral. High-temperature destruction of organic com
ponents is achieved during processing with formation of fuel
gases and their subsequent effective combustion [1 – 4].
One of the critical assemblies of the model device for
processing waste specifying its efficiency (heat retention) is
a reactor for pyrolysis of low calorific raw material and
weakly radioactive atomic power station waste. The lining of
a reactor shaft should be made from refractory material, radi
ation-resistant, heat insulating, thermal shock resistant, cor
rosion resistant, and resistant to molten slag up to 1500°C.
The SHS method at high reaction gas, i.e., nitrogen, pressure
makes it possible to combine the stages of material synthesis
and sintering of an object from it in one stage of direct syn
thesis of dense refractory corrosion-resistant materials. SHS,
performed at low pressure, makes it possible to synthesize
highly porous materials with low thermal conductivity.
Work has been carried out for preparing materials for lin-
ing a pyrolysis reactor shaft and filter material for final
cleaning of exhaust gases. Model studies have been carried
out for treatment of atomic power station weakly radioactive
waste, whose morphological and physicomechanical proper-
ties are close to those of solid domestic waste. Model experi-
ments have been carried out using SHS-fluorophlogopites
for bonding and conserving radionuclides (due to iso
morphism (outer layer): homo- and heterogeneous exchange
ion by ions of alkali and alkaline-earth metals (Na
). SHS of fluorophlogopites makes it possible
to obtain synthesis products in the form of dense cast mate
rial with good mechanical strength and chemical resistance,
and resistance to long-term action of natural media.
A study of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis
of dense refractory materials was carried out in an SHS-
gasostat [4, 5], whose dimensions make it possible to prepare
objects up to 75 mm in diameter and up to 250 mm thick.
Highly porous SHS objects were prepared at low pressure in
vacuum furnaces of the SShVÉ-1,2,5/25I2 shaft vacuum
electric resistance furnace type.
Refractoriness was determined by a method of 20 min
exposure of specimens at 2096 K in a helium atmosphere,
and corrosion resistance of specimens was determined by a
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 55, No. 4, November, 2014
1083-4877/14/05504-0347 © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGBUN Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Sci
ence Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences (ISMAN), Cherno
golovka, Moscow Region, Russia.