Food grade titanium dioxide disrupts intestinal brush border microvilli in vitro independent of sedimentation

Food grade titanium dioxide disrupts intestinal brush border microvilli in vitro independent of... Bulk- and nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO2) has found use in human food products for controlling color, texture, and moisture. Once ingested, and because of their small size, nano-scale TiO2 can interact with a number of epithelia that line the human gastrointestinal tract. One such epithelium responsible for nutrient absorption is the small intestine, whose constituent cells contain microvilli to increase the total surface area of the gut. Using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy it was found that food grade TiO2 (E171 food additive coded) included ∼25 % of the TiO2 as nanoparticles (NPs; <100 nm), and disrupted the normal organization of the microvilli as a consequence of TiO2 sedimentation. It was found that TiO2 isolated from the candy coating of chewing gum and a commercially available TiO2 food grade additive samples were of the anatase crystal structure. Exposure to food grade TiO2 additives, containing nanoparticles, at the lowest concentration tested within this experimental paradigm to date at 350 ng/mL (i.e., 100 ng/cm2 cell surface area) resulted in disruption of the brush border. Through the use of two independent techniques to remove the effects of gravity, and subsequent TiO2 sedimentation, it was found that disruption of the microvilli was independent of sedimentation. These data indicate that food grade TiO2 exposure resulted in the loss of microvilli from the Caco-2BBe1 cell system due to a biological response, and not simply a physical artifact of in vitro exposure. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Cell Biology and Toxicology Springer Journals

Food grade titanium dioxide disrupts intestinal brush border microvilli in vitro independent of sedimentation

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2014 by Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Subject
Life Sciences; Cell Biology; Pharmacology/Toxicology; Biochemistry, general
ISSN
0742-2091
eISSN
1573-6822
DOI
10.1007/s10565-014-9278-1
pmid
24817113
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Bulk- and nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO2) has found use in human food products for controlling color, texture, and moisture. Once ingested, and because of their small size, nano-scale TiO2 can interact with a number of epithelia that line the human gastrointestinal tract. One such epithelium responsible for nutrient absorption is the small intestine, whose constituent cells contain microvilli to increase the total surface area of the gut. Using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy it was found that food grade TiO2 (E171 food additive coded) included ∼25 % of the TiO2 as nanoparticles (NPs; <100 nm), and disrupted the normal organization of the microvilli as a consequence of TiO2 sedimentation. It was found that TiO2 isolated from the candy coating of chewing gum and a commercially available TiO2 food grade additive samples were of the anatase crystal structure. Exposure to food grade TiO2 additives, containing nanoparticles, at the lowest concentration tested within this experimental paradigm to date at 350 ng/mL (i.e., 100 ng/cm2 cell surface area) resulted in disruption of the brush border. Through the use of two independent techniques to remove the effects of gravity, and subsequent TiO2 sedimentation, it was found that disruption of the microvilli was independent of sedimentation. These data indicate that food grade TiO2 exposure resulted in the loss of microvilli from the Caco-2BBe1 cell system due to a biological response, and not simply a physical artifact of in vitro exposure.

Journal

Cell Biology and ToxicologySpringer Journals

Published: May 11, 2014

References

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