Flavonoids: Their Structure, Biosynthesis and Role in the Rhizosphere, Including Allelopathy

Flavonoids: Their Structure, Biosynthesis and Role in the Rhizosphere, Including Allelopathy Flavonoids are biologically active low molecular weight secondary metabolites that are produced by plants, with over 10,000 structural variants now reported. Due to their physical and biochemical properties, they interact with many diverse targets in subcellular locations to elicit various activities in microbes, plants, and animals. In plants, flavonoids play important roles in transport of auxin, root and shoot development, pollination, modulation of reactive oxygen species, and signalling of symbiotic bacteria in the legume Rhizobium symbiosis. In addition, they possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer activities. In the plant, flavonoids are transported within and between plant tissues and cells, and are specifically released into the rhizosphere by roots where they are involved in plant/plant interactions or allelopathy. Released by root exudation or tissue degradation over time, both aglycones and glycosides of flavonoids are found in soil solutions and root exudates. Although the relative role of flavonoids in allelopathic interference has been less well-characterized than that of some secondary metabolites, we present classic examples of their involvement in autotoxicity and allelopathy. We also describe their activity and fate in the soil rhizosphere in selected examples involving pasture legumes, cereal crops, and ferns. Potential research directions for further elucidation of the specific role of flavonoids in soil rhizosphere interactions are considered. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Chemical Ecology Springer Journals

Flavonoids: Their Structure, Biosynthesis and Role in the Rhizosphere, Including Allelopathy

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Abstract

Flavonoids are biologically active low molecular weight secondary metabolites that are produced by plants, with over 10,000 structural variants now reported. Due to their physical and biochemical properties, they interact with many diverse targets in subcellular locations to elicit various activities in microbes, plants, and animals. In plants, flavonoids play important roles in transport of auxin, root and shoot development, pollination, modulation of reactive oxygen species, and signalling of symbiotic bacteria in the legume Rhizobium symbiosis. In addition, they possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer activities. In the plant, flavonoids are transported within and between plant tissues and cells, and are specifically released into the rhizosphere by roots where they are involved in plant/plant interactions or allelopathy. Released by root exudation or tissue degradation over time, both aglycones and glycosides of flavonoids are found in soil solutions and root exudates. Although the relative role of flavonoids in allelopathic interference has been less well-characterized than that of some secondary metabolites, we present classic examples of their involvement in autotoxicity and allelopathy. We also describe their activity and fate in the soil rhizosphere in selected examples involving pasture legumes, cereal crops, and ferns. Potential research directions for further elucidation of the specific role of flavonoids in soil rhizosphere interactions are considered.

Journal

Journal of Chemical EcologySpringer Journals

Published: Feb 9, 2013

References

  • Flavonoids as antioxidants in plants: Location and functional significance
    Agati, G; Azzarello, E; Pollastri, S; Tattini, M
  • Altered profile of secondary metabolites in the root exudates of Arabidopsis ATP-binding cassette transporter mutants
    Badri, DV; Loyola-Vargas, VM; Broeckling, CD; De-La-pena, C; Jasinski, M; Santelia, D; Martinoia, E; Sumner, LW; Banta, LM; Stermitz, F; Vivanco, JM
  • An ABC transporter mutation alters root exudation of phytochemicals that provoke an overhaul of natural soil microbiota
    Badri, DV; Quintana, N; El Kassis, EG; Kim, HK; Choi, YH; Sugiyama, A; Verpoorte, R; Martinoia, E; Manter, DK; Vivanco, JM
  • Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) resistance to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans: Defense-response gene mRNA and isoflavonoid phytoalexin levels in roots
    Baldridge, GD; O’Neill, NR; Samac, DA

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