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Six specimens of Bathygobius hongkongensis were collected for the first time from the eastern coast of Jeju Island, Korea, in September–November 2017. This species is characterized by a pectoral fin with free rays and the division of the first dorsalmost pectoral free ray into three branches; a lower jaw with a mental frenum; and an anterior nostril with a tiny flap. Bathygobius hongkongensis is similar to B. fuscus but differs in having more dorsalmost free pectoral fin rays. The new Korean name proposed for B. hongkongensis is “Nam-bang-mu-nui-mang-duk.” Keywords: Gobiidae, First record, Bathygobius hongkongensis, Jeju Island, Tidal pool Background only one species of the genus, Bathygobius fuscus (Rüppell Jeju Island, the largest and most southern island of 1830) has been reported until now (Kim et al. 2005). Korea, is the habitat for many subtropical and temperate In the present study, six specimens of the genus Bath- marine fishes (Kim 2009), and various fish species have ygobius were collected from a tidal pool on Jeju Island, recently been reported for the first time in its coastal and were identified as Bathygobius hongkongensis Lam waters, including in tidal pools (Jang et al. 2018; Kim 1986 based on morphology. This species is previously et al. 2018;Kwunetal. 2016). Jeju Island is affected by unrecorded in Korean waters, so it is reported for the the Kuroshio Warm Current (Kim et al. 2009), so it can first time and its morphology described. be regarded as the boundary area in which tropical and subtropical fishes first appear in Korean waters. Methods The family Gobiidae, one of the largest fish taxa, con- Six specimens of B. hongkongensis were collected with a tains 189 genera and 1359 species worldwide, and most hand net from a tidal pool on the eastern coast of Jeju species are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions Island between September and November 2017 (Fig. 1), (Nelson et al. 2016). Marine Gobiidae species inhabit ben- and were fixed as whole bodies in 99% ethanol. All thic environments on mud, sand, and rocky substrates, counts and measurements were made according to from the coast to the continental slope, including estuaries Hubbs et al. (2004), and measurements were made to (Hastings et al. 2014). The genus Bathygobius Bleeker the nearest 0.1 mm with a digital Vernier caliper. The fin 1878 is a representative group of this family, and 28 spe- rays were counted under a stereomicroscope (SZX16, cies are recognized worldwide (Froese and Pauly 2019). Olympus, Japan), and the vertebrae were counted from a This genus is characterized by a chin with a mental radiograph (VIX-100, Softex, Japan). The specimens frenum and free tips of the upper pectoral fin rays have been deposited at the National Marine Biodiversity (Akihito et al. 2013; Larson and Murdy 2001). In Korea, Institute of Korea, Marine Fish Diversity (MFD). Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, 75, 101 Jangsan-ro, Janghang-eup, Seocheon-gun, Chungcheongnam-do 33662, Korea © The Author(s). 2020 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Kwun Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2020) 23:17 Page 2 of 4 Fig. 1 Map showing the location of Jeju Island and sampling sites Results length 7.0–8.7; postorbital length 14.4–16.9; caudal ped- Bathygobius hongkongensis Lam 1986 uncle depth 11.7–14.5; predorsal length 34.0–37.8; pre- (New Korean name: Nam-bang-mu-nui-mang-duk) (Fig. 2) pectoral length 29.8–33.3; preanal length 58.0–65.3. Bathygobius hongkongensis Lam 1986: 76. TL: Chung Proportions as % head length (HL): interorbital width Hum Kok, Hong Kong; Motomura et al. 2010:206;Shen 7.7–11.9; eye diameter 22.0–26.2; upper jaw length and Wu 2011: 674; Prokofiev 2016: 644. 17.1–25.2; pectoral fin length 64.9–97.0. Body moderate and tapering posteriorly. Head slightly Examined material blunt and depressed. Anterior nostril with small flap. MFD-1192–1193, 2 specimens, 24.2–31.5 mm standard length (SL), Seongsan-ri (33° 27′ 36.03″ N, 126° 56′ Table 1 Comparison of meristic characters of Bathygobius 06.66″ E), Seongsan-eup, Seogwipo, Jeju Island, hand hongkongensis net, 7 Sep. 2017; MFD-1231–1232, 2 specimens, 28.3– Bathygobius hongkongensis 34.8 mm SL, Seongsan-ri (33° 27′ 36.03″ N, 126° 56′ Present study Lam (1986) Akihito et al. (2013) 06.66″ E), Seongsan-eup, Seogwipo, Jeju Island, hand Number of specimens 6 18 - net, 12 Oct. 2017; MFD-1234–1235, 2 specimens, 34.1– Standard length (mm) 24.2–34.8 25.6–45.9 - 34.8 mm SL, Seongsan-ri (33° 27′ 36.03″ N, 126° 56′ Counts 06.66″ E), Seongsan-eup, Seogwipo, Jeju Island, hand net, 14 Nov. 2017. Dorsal fin VI-I, 9 VI-I, 9 VI-I, 9–10 Anal fin I, 8 I, 8 I, 7–8 Description Pectoral fin 20–21 19–21 - The counts are listed in Table 1. Proportions as % SL: Vertebrae 27 26 - head length 28.9–31.9; body depth 19.7–22.7; snout Kwun Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2020) 23:17 Page 3 of 4 Fig. 2 Bathygobius hongkongensis. a Lateral view, MFD-1192, 31.5 mm SL. b Dorsal view, MFD-1234, 34.8 mm SL Snout short, mouth terminal, and both lips thick. Upper presence of a small flap at the tip anterior nostril, the tip and lower jaws with irregular rows of small conical teeth. of upper pectoral fin is free from the fin membrane and Posterior tip of maxilla not reaching anterior margin of the lower jaw has a mental frenum (Akihito et al. 2013; eye. Posterior margin of mental frenum slightly straight. Larson and Murdy 2001) . The specimens were identi- Two dorsal fins separated. Origin of anal fin located be- fied as B. hongkongensis because they correspond to the hind origin of second dorsal fin. Upper rays of pectoral fin original description of that species (Lam 1986): first free free from membrane (Fig. 3) and first dorsalmost free ray upper pectoral fin separated into three branches, the divided into three branches. Pelvic disk circular. Caudal posterior margin of the mental frenum is straight, and fin rounded. Body covered in scales from predorsal and the cheek and operculum have no scales. When B. hon- preanal regions to caudal base. Head without scales. Well- gkongensis is compared with the closely related species developed sensory canal system on head. B. fuscus, the former differs from the latter in having more dorsalmost free pectoral fin rays (9–22 in B. hon- Coloration gkongensis vs. 5–7in B. fuscus), total length (TL) > 25 When fresh, head and body speckled darkish brown dor- mm, and a small flap on the anterior nostril (present vs. sally and whitish ventrally. Wide blackish brown blotch, absent, respectively) (Lam 1986; Akihito et al. 2013). like a band, on the body below the first dorsal fin (Fig. 2b). Bathygobius hongkongensis inhabits rocky shores in Small dark spot on upper pectoral fin base. All fins semi- tropical and subtropical regions such as Hong Kong, transparent and pale brown, and dorsal, caudal, and pec- toral fins with several small brown spots. Distribution Bathygobius hongkongensis is distributed in parts of the western Pacific region, including around Hong Kong, Vietnam, Taiwan, and Japan (Akihito et al. 2013; Froese and Pauly 2019; Lam 1986; Prokofiev 2016; Shen and Wu 2011). The present specimens were found in an intertidal rockpool on the eastern coast of Jeju Island. Discussion and conclusion Fig. 3 Free rays on the dorsalmost pectoral fins, MFD-1231, The present specimens can be assigned to the genus 34.8 mm SL Bathygobius based on the following characters: the Kwun Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2020) 23:17 Page 4 of 4 Thailand, Taiwan, and Japan (Froese and Pauly 2019), Nelson JS, Grande TC, Wilson MVH. Fishes of the world. 5th ed. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons; 2016. and adult specimens have now been found in the south- Prokofiev AM. Gobies (Gobioidei) of soft bottoms from Nha Trang and Van ern region of Korea. This represents an extension of the Phong bays (South China Sea, Vietnam). J Ichthyol. 2016;56:799–817. B. hongkongensis range northward into the western Pa- Rüppell E. Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Afrika. Fische des Rothen Meers. Frankfurt: Heinrich Ludwig Brönner; 1828–1830. cific. The new Korean name, “Nam-bang-mu-nui-mang- Shen S, Wu G. Fishes of Taiwan. National Museum of Marine Biology and duk” is proposed for B. hongkongensis. Aquarium: Pingtung; 2011. Acknowledgements Publisher’sNote Not applicable Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Author’s contributions Author collects a specimen and writes the manuscript. The author(s) read and approved the final manuscript. Funding This work was supported by the National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea Research Program (2020 M00100). Availability of data and materials Not applicable Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable Consent for publication Not applicable Competing interests The author reports no competing interests. 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