Pattern recognition receptors are somatically encoded and participate in the innate immune responses of a host to microbes. It is increasingly acknowledged that these receptors play a central role both in beneficial and pathogenic interactions with microbes. In particular, these receptors participate actively in shaping the gut environment to establish a fruitful life-long relationship between a host and its microbiota. Commensal bacteria engage Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) to induce specific responses by intestinal epithelial cells such as production of antimicrobial products or of a functional mucus layer. Furthermore, a complex crosstalk between intestinal epithelial cells and the immune system is initiated leading to a mature gut-associated lymphoid tissue to secrete IgA. Impairment in NLR and TLR functionality in epithelial cells is strongly associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn’s disease, cancer, and with control of the commensal microbiota creating a more favorable environment for the emergence of new infections.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 8, 2011
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