Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
Background: Plans to increase the role of students in health research require data on students’ knowledge and views of research. The aim of the study was to evaluate these factors toward research among medical science students. Methods: Undergraduate and postgraduate students of three medicine, dentistry and pharmacy schools in Shiraz were enrolled in a cross-sectional descriptive study using questionnaires to provide details of the parameters of attitude to, knowledge of and barriers toward research for each individual. All data was coded for each of the parameters. Data analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA/Tukey and Student’s t, Pearson’s correlation and Chi-squared tests. Results: A total of 384 questionnaires were returned complete. Mean student scores for attitude, knowledge and barriers were 68.97 ± 12.56, 70.99 ± 20.97 and 75.27 ± 15.38, respectively. On the knowledge parameter, 77.8% of students’ scores fell above the middle of the possible attainable score, but 90% of attitude scores came in at below the middle of the possible attainable score. Undergraduate students (70.27 ± 12.00) showed a more positive attitude to research than postgraduate students (65.57 ± 13.06) (p = 0.001). Female students (72.97 ± 20.54) had greater knowledge than males (67.09 ± 21.56) (p = 0.010). Many barriers were highlighted by students such as lack of funding support and lack of time for research. Conclusions: Students showed favorable knowledge of research, but their attitude to the field was inadequate. More attention must be placed on these parameters in the curriculum to improve student interest in health research. The impact of barrier factors on research demonstrates that there is a need for greater availability of information in order to solve the problems and change strategies for research. Keywords: Approach, Awareness, Medical students, Investigate, Research Introduction methods . Health research has an impact on the In the present day, one of the best measures of scientific prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and progress in a country is the research situation in their especially on health care programs policy . Insufficient scientific communities . Therefore, the concern over attention to research by a government and the educated conducting scientific and accurate research has increased members of a community may contribute to scientific and in most countries, both industrial and developing. This knowledge lag within the national community but also in trend may be due to the desire to resolve the health care the world as a whole . Sometimes the trend in research problems in their communities, to establish independence is favoured by educated members, while the shortfall in from other countries or to compete with them. basic and valuable research may reflect other factors that Research is a systematic process to achieve new have influence on the research. The three main factors seen knowledge, science or invention by the use standard to impact on research success in the literature are: attitude to, knowledge of and barriers toward research [5-14]. One of the most important factors underlying any * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org 2 study is the researchers’ beliefs, as it is these that motivate Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical them to undertake a study in the first place . The Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © 2015 Memarpour et al.; licensee BioMed Central. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Memarpour et al. Asia Pacific Family Medicine (2015) 14:1 Page 2 of 7 attitude to health research stems from the researchers’ undergraduate students from below the 5th year of their curiosity and interest in a particular subject or their course and any responses where no more than three wish to solve a problem within a community [5-8]. questions were answered. Performance of research fitted to the health needs of each society should be encouraged for consideration Questionnaire by their own educated sectors. The literature reports A 3-page, self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to positive attitudes toward research among the majority of the students by one researcher who explained the aim of Irish , Pakistani [5,7,9], Croatian  and New Zealand the study, and those students who showed an interest in  medical students throughout their career. participating were able to consult the surveyor who Adequate knowledge of the study subject and awareness remained present to answer any questions raised by of research principles are essential prerequisites for any respondents while they were completing the forms. The study. Some previous studies of medical students showed questionnaires were distributed directly to individual that they had inadequate knowledge of the scientific students and were collected immediately after completion. inquiry process, but that they were nonetheless interested Both undergraduate and postgraduate students in the in pursuing research in the future [5,6,10]. three fields of medical sciences (medicine, dentistry and The final factor directly affecting the performance of pharmacy) were included in the study. The definition of research lies in the barriers against researchers. The postgraduate student includes: medical residents (involving main parameters reported in the literature as barriers to those in the clinical practice, but not PhD students research among medical students included: inadequate involved in basic sciences), all the dental resident students knowledge of study design or interpretation of study and all PhD pharmacy attending in the pharmacy. All results, time limitations [11,13-15] and restrictions in participants were assured that their responses would funding support [9,14-16]. Other factors mentioned as remain secret. barriers include: lack of research training [1,9], uncertainty The questions included in the questionnaire were about the ability to successfully complete a study (lack of obtained on the basis of a comprehensive literature research self-efficacy) [1,11,14,15], little support from review [9,10,14,15,20-22]. The content of the questionnaire mentorship [11,14,17,18], lack of interest in research  was adapted from previous studies with efforts made to and limited access to data sources (i.e. internet), materials make the questionnaires appropriate to our local university. and equipment . The questionnaire included three main sections to evaluate Given the role of research in health care programs and student views on attitudes to, knowledge of and barriers the fact that few studies are available on the importance towards research (Additional file 1). The questionnaire of research among medical science students, the aim of addressed: this study was the “evaluation of attitude to, knowledge of and barriers toward research among students of medicine, 1. Demographic information such as: age, gender, dentistry and pharmacy studying at Shiraz University of marital status, field of study, level of education, Medical Sciences 2012-2013”. The results will be used as participation in research projects. the basis of recommendations and a strategy to improve 2. Attitudes towards research were assessed by 27 research among medical science students in Shiraz. questions. The answers were evaluated by 5-point Likert rating scale ranging from strongly agree Methods (score 1) to strongly disagree (score 5). The total of Subjects attitude scores as well as barrier scores for each The research protocol for this cross-sectional study was student were computed as a sum of the total number submitted to the Human Ethics Review Committee of scores (5-point Likert) answered for the questions. the Faculty of Dentistry Shiraz University of Medical The questions were centered on the perceived role of Sciences. Following approval from the Committee, research in their education, life and future career. 410 students were enrolled in the study. Of the 216 Some questions also raised discussion of the medical students, 135 agreed to participate in the importance of research class, the kind of research study, along with 144 out of 151 of dental students and preference, reasons for having interest in the research 131 of the 152 pharmacy students initially enrolled in the and plans to participate in research. study. The cohort included all of the undergraduate 3. Knowledge of research was investigated through students enrolled in the last two years of their respective 8 questions to evaluate basic and preliminary th th medical science schools (5 and 6 years) in Shiraz, plus knowledge of different kinds of research studies, postgraduate students in all three fields regardless of the statistics, scientific writing, database resources. year of their education. Exclusion criteria for the Each correct response earned a score of 1 and each study included: unwillingness to participate in the survey, incorrect answer received a score of 0. Memarpour et al. Asia Pacific Family Medicine (2015) 14:1 Page 3 of 7 4. Barriers toward research were assessed through responses were discarded. Throughout the study p < 0.05 32 questions and evaluated in the same way as was considered statistically significant. described for assessment of attitude. The questions concerned limitation factors on research such as: Results inadequate financial support, problems in Completed forms were received from 384 undergraduate performing research (i.e.; lack of access to and postgraduate students. Reponses were received from equipment and research materials), lack of time, 276 undergraduates (mean age 23.75 ± 1.60) and 108 inadequate motivation, inadequate mentor support postgraduates (mean age 27.85 ± 3.06). In total 66.4% and acknowledgement of researchers. were women and 33.6% were men. All of the students surveyed had participated at least in one piece of The relevance of the questions and the comprehensibil- research, but only 36.8% had published their work (31.2% ity of the questionnaire were assessed by a panel of 10 of undergraduate students and 42.4% of postgraduate professors and 25 students in each of the institutes prior to students). Table 1 shows demographic characteristics implementation in order to ensure there was no difficulty of participants. in understanding and responding to the questions. The The overall mean scores of students on attitude, know- reliability coefficient accessed by Cronbach alpha was 0.75 ledge and barriers were 68.97 ± 12.56, 70.99 ± 20.97 and for attitude, 0.88 for barriers and 0.71 for knowledge. 75.27 ± 15.38, respectively. Female students (72.97 ± 20.54) had greater knowledge than males (67.09 ± 21.56) Analysis (p=0.010), and single students (69.73 ± 12.37) had better Statistical analysis attitude than their married peers (66.12 ± 12.54) (P = 0.020). All of the data from the completed forms was collected The age of students was significantly correlated with and coded for each of these parameters to assess the both knowledge (r = -0.102, p = 0.048) and attitude scores medical, dental and pharmacy students’ responses to the (r = -0.170, p = 0.001) in an inverse direction. three fields of research, including the undergraduate Comparisons between the 3 different schools regardless and post graduate students. Also the respondents of level of education showed a mean for knowledge in were compared according to field of education as well medical students significantly lower than that of pharmacy as level of education. The students’ answers were and dentistry students (p < 0.001, p = 0.012) respectively. compared to each other to identify any impact of age, The mean attitude score of undergraduate students sex, marital status or level of education on their (70.27 ± 12.00) was significantly greater than that of responses. The quantitative variables were presented postgraduate students (65.57 ± 13.06) (p = 0.001). However, as percentages and the qualitative data was presented there was no significant difference between the education as means and standard deviations of variables relating levels of students in terms of knowledge and barrier scores to the level and field of education. (p = 0.974, p = 0.791, respectively). Table 2 shows compara- Data analyses were performed by means of the SPSS tive means and standard deviations between on research for Windows version 15.0 statistical package. One-way subjects between sex and marital status groups as well as ANOVA/Tukey and Student’s t tests were used to compare field and level of education groups. the mean scores and ages in different levels and field of Table 3 shows comparative means and standard devia- education, respectively. Pearson’s correlation coefficient tions between field and level of education on research was used to assess the relationship between age and scores. subjects. The levels for each of the 3 threads: attitude, The chi-square test was employed to draw comparisons knowledge and barriers to health research, were evalu- between groups on a basis of sex and marital status. Of the ated by the percentage of students falling in the quartiles questionnaires collected, any with more than two missing of the possible score for each field (Table 4). Data Table 1 Demographic data of students participating in the current study n Undergraduate students Postgraduate students Sex Male 130 82 (29.8%) 48 (43/4) Female 254 194 (70.2%) 60 (56/6%) Marital status Single 296 230 (83/6%) 66 (61/7%) Couple 88 46 (16/4%) 42 (38/3%) Field of education Medical 121 85 (70/2%) 36 (29/8%) Dental 138 101 (73/4%) 37(26/6%) Pharmacy 125 90 (73/2%) 35 (26/8%) Memarpour et al. Asia Pacific Family Medicine (2015) 14:1 Page 4 of 7 Table 2 Comparison of mean (±SD) of research subjects for demographic characteristics Variable Attitude Knowledge Barrier Sex Male 69.86 ± 12.47 67.09 ± 21.56 75.79 ± 14.57 Female 69.58 ± 12.48 72.97 ± 20.54 74.78 ± 15.82 P value 0.010* 0.354 0.542 Marital status Single 69.73 ± 12.37 70.90 ± 20.26 74.98 ± 15.23 Couple 66.12 ± 12.54 71.51 ± 23.61 76.25 ± 15.72 P value 0.020* 0.814 0.507 a a a Field of education Medical 70.90 ± 5.04 72.36 ± 18.47 75.14 ± 16.14 a b a Dental 67.84 ± 11.39 64.77 ± 22.36 74.61 ± 13.4 a a a Pharmacy 68.23 ± 0.82 75.18 ± 20.69 76.13 ± 16.7 P value 0.106 <0.001* 0.729 Level of education Undergraduate students 70.27 ± 12.00 75.18 ± 14.56 71.24 ± 20.88 Postgraduate students 65.57 ± 13.06 75.24 ± 17.35 70.60 ± 21.36 P value 0.001* 0.974 0.791 In the case of field of education, different letters in each column show significant differences between the fields (Tukey HSD test). p < 0.05 is significant*. showed that most of student (90.5%) had an attitude [9,10,14,15,20-22]. We are aware of the limitations of score to research which was lower than half of possible evaluations based on the use of self-reporting, as used in attainable score, although 77.9% fell above half of our study, but we consider the method useful in preliminary possible attainable score on the knowledge parameter evaluation of the views of medical science students to and showed adequate knowledge. A large number of research in the various parameters of attitude, knowledge students (66.7%) were more interested in clinical research and barriers. Our study did not attempt to assess the sort of than the other forms of research such as social and research performed by students, but we are aware that the in vitro study (45.9%). Inadequate financial support was results of any such evaluation can be useful to open new cited as the main barrier, followed by a preference for perspectives on research and the revision of curricula. academic instruction over research, limited time and lack In the present study most of the students (90%) of research skills and knowledge. Figure 1 shows the showed an attitude to research that fell below the 50% highest agreement percentage of respondents in the level, whereas Vodopivec et al.  and Amin et al.  various fields of barriers. reported a positive attitude to research among medical students in Croatia and the Arab Universities. Khan Discussion et al. also reported moderate attitude to research among In the present day, a global approach to scientific studies Pakistani medical students [5,8]. These differences may has developed in medical education which leads to be related to differences between countries and students, increased number of articles being published throughout and the impact of other factors such as barriers may the world. have a heavy influence on levels of interest in research. In the present study, the questionnaires were devised The range covered by the questions in our comprehensive on the basis of a comprehensive literature review questionnaire and the detail given in the responses may Table 3 Comparison of mean (±SD) of research subjects for educational characteristics Field Educational level Attitude P value Knowledge P value Barriers P value Medical UGS 70.4 ± 14.85 0.244 5.11 ± 1.80 0.547 76.43 ± 14.89 0.179 PGS 68.52 ± 15.39 5.33 ± 1.75 72.11 ± 18.65 Dental UGS 69.28 ± 10.62 0.017 6.088 ± 1.59 0.384 74.03 ± 13.34 0.411 PGS 64.55 ± 12.59 5.81 ± 1.82 5.69 ± 1.51 Pharmacy UGS 69.91 ± 10.40 0.070 5.82 ± 1.47 0.679 74.54 ± 15.63 0.525 PGS 63.96 ± 10.83 5.69 ± 1.51 5.69 ± 1.51 UGS: undergraduate students, PGS: postgraduate students. p < 0.05 is significant*. Memarpour et al. Asia Pacific Family Medicine (2015) 14:1 Page 5 of 7 Table 4 Distribution of attitude, knowledge, and barrier research than their female peers [5,8,9,24,25]. The differ- scores of participants regarding the percentages of total ences may be related to data collection from different pop- attainable score ulations, variations in sample size  and the increasing of Percent of total score Attitude Knowledge Barriers acceptance female students in our medical universities. <25% 49 (13.2%) 21 (5.5%) 97 (25.7%) Our study showed that all of the students surveyed were involved in a research project. This may be due to the 26%-50% 286 (77.3%) 64 (16.7%) 260 (69.0%) mandatory thesis course for graduation in the last years of 51%-75% 34 (9.2%) 168 (43.8%) 19 (5%) scientific education, and a similar policy appears to be >75% 1 (0.3%) 131 (34.1%) 1 (0.3%) implemented in many universities [6,9]. Considerations of research in the curriculum varies across countries and also account for some of this variation. The current study universities [14,26]. Pruskil et al.  showed that the revealed a better attitude to research among undergraduate reformed curricula led to increased student involvement in than postgraduate students, and increasing age and level of research activity. Vujaklija el al. , Khan et al.  and education as well as marriage, were clearly seen to have an Wang and Guo  stated that assessed projects and adverse effect on attitude to and knowledge of research. mandatory research improve experience and training in This may be due to the heavy workload of postgraduate research, have a positive impact on students and motivate students in their research and studies coupled with marital them to undertake further research in the future [8,17]. responsibilities  and the belief that research will have Lack of research activity may be due to inadequate little role in their future career . The findings of researcher knowledge . Present study showed stu- Askew et al. were similar to ours, reporting that dents’ knowledge was moderately favorable. Also, our younger physicians were more enthusiastic about research data showed the students had poor awareness of statistical . Khan et al. also reported that residents’ knowledge techniques, the essentials for writing articles. Similar and attitudes towards research did not improve significantly inadequate knowledge of these items has been mentioned with their increasing years of education , however; before in the literature [6,28,29]. Our results showed that Vukaklija et al. reported the opposite, as they found the the mean for knowledge in medical students was signifi- attitude toward research improved among undergraduate cantly lower than that of pharmacy and dentistry students, students with each increasing year of education . This which may partly be due to the heavy workload in hospitals particular difference may correlated to the level of students and the limited time available to participate in the research evaluated (undergraduate or postgraduate) or variations classes [5,6,8,9,11,13,14,19,26]. according to the field of study, also bearing in mind that In the current study, the main barrier to research was barriers to research may vary according to the individual reported as inadequate financial support followed by the situation in each country. preference for academic instruction over research, limited The current study showed that female students had time and lack of research skills. In addition, the lack greater knowledge than their male peers, but attitude to of researcher motivation or acknowledgment, researcher research did not differ between the sexes. Similar results economic problems associated with the lack of payment were obtained by Amin el al. . In contrast to our for research, and lack of mentorship were considered as study, however, studies in Pakistan and the USA revealed barriers by students. The same results have also been male medical students showed a better attitude to reported in other studies [6,9,11,26,30]. Figure 1 Percentage of main barriers toward research by medical students. Memarpour et al. Asia Pacific Family Medicine (2015) 14:1 Page 6 of 7 Just as in our study, lack of research funding support Authors’ contributions MM: conceptualized and designed the study, supervised data collection, was also cited as the main barrier for students in previous critically reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as studies [5,9,13]. This may be related to the fact that limits submitted. APF: Precipitated designed the study, carried out the initial on funding for research involving expensive materials and analyses, reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. RG: Data collection instrument, carried out the initial analyses, equipment in some countries lead to a low incentive for drafted the initial manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as research . Institutes should try to seek funding support submitted. from resources other than the government and they should encourage researchers to seek out grants and Acknowledgments This work was supported by Vice-Chancellory of Shiraz University of Medical awards . Science and Student Research Committee (Grant No# 92-6571). The authors Limited time due to heavy workload was commonly also thank Dr. Mehrdad Vossoughi, Assistant Professor, Center for Research reported in previous studies [5,6,8,9,11,13,14,19,26], with Improvement, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, for statistical analysis, and S.Griffin-Mason (AuthorAID in the Eastern Mediterranean) this experience noted especially by residents who become for help with the English in the manuscript. engrossed in clinical practice that engages them physically and mentally to such an extent that they are left with no Author details Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of free time for research [5,6]. Setting aside a specific time Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, slot for research activity in the student curriculum may be Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Student Research Committee, helpful in reducing this barrier . School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The role of faculty staff in teaching research principles Received: 4 August 2014 Accepted: 27 January 2015 to students has been noted in some studies [1,5,6]. Professors can create positive awareness of research in students  and can guide students to become References 1. Vujaklija A, Hren D, Sambunjak D, Vodopivec I, Ivanis A, Marusić A, et al. aware of health problems within their society, using Can teaching research methodology influence students’ attitude toward the approach to help solve problems . Lack of support science? Cohort study and nonrandomized trial in a single medical school. through mentorship and the reduced effectiveness of J Investig Med. 2010;58(2):282–6. 2. Sridevi KV. Attitude of M. Ed. Students towards Research. Available at research has already been reported in the literature http://www.aiaer.net/ejournal/vol20108/14.htm [6,24,14]. Poor guidance by professors may lead to 3. Lavis JN, Oxman AD, Moynihan R, Paulsen EJ. Evidence-informed health confusion amongst students during study stages [6,11,26] policy 1-Synthesis of findings from a multi-method study of organizations that support the use of research evidence. Implement Sci. 2008;3:53. lead to student dissatisfaction [21,31] and lack of financial 4. Lev EL, Kolassa J, Bakken LL. Faculty mentors’ and students’ perceptions of support when problems are encountered [6,11,26]. It is students’ research self efficacy. Nurse Educ Today. 2010;30(2):169–74. strongly recommended that professors be encouraged to 5. Khan H, Khan S, Iqbal A. Knowledge, attitudes and practices around health research: the perspective of physicians-in-training in Pakistan. BMC Med participate as active mentors involved in all stages of the Educ. 2009;9:46. study . 6. Amin T, Kaliyadan F, Abdulatheem EA, Majed M, Khanjaf H, Mirza M. Knowledge, attitudes and barriers related to participation of medical students in research in three Arab Universities. Educ Med J. 2012;4(1):e47–e55. Conclusions 7. Khan H, Taqui AM, Khawaja MR, Fatmi Z. Problem-based versus conventional curricula: influence on knowledge and attitudes of medical students towards Medical science students in three schools of medicine, health research. PLoS One. 2007;2(7):e632. dentistry and pharmacy showed a favorable knowledge 8. Khan H, Khawaja R, Waheed A, Rauf M, Fatmi Z. Knowledge and attitudes of research, but their attitude toward the process ranked about health research amongst a group of Pakistani medical students. BMC Med Educ. 2006;6:54. at below moderate. Undergraduate and single students 9. Sabzwari S, Kauser S, Khuwaja AK. Experiences, attitudes and barriers showed a better attitude than residents. Females had a towards research amongst junior faculty of Pakistani medical universities. better knowledge of research than males. The majority BMC Med Educ. 2009;16:9–68. 10. Vodopivec I, Vujaklija A, Hrabak A, Lukiæ IK, Marušiæ A, Marušiæ A. of students considered there were barriers to the Knowledge about and Attitude towards Science of First Year Medical performance of research. While all students were involved Students. Croat Med J. 2002;43:58–62. in at least one research project, students are given no 11. Burgoyne LN, O’Flynn S, Boylan GB. Undergraduate medical research: the student perspective. Med Educ Online. 2010;10:15. mandatory input on research theory and practice that 12. Park SJ, McGhee CN, Sherwin T. Medical students’ attitudes towards might deepen their understanding of the research process. research and a career in research: an Auckland, New Zealand study. N Z Med J. 2010;123(1323):34–42. 13. Rosemann T, Szecsenyi J. General practitioners’ attitudes towards research in primary care: qualitative results of a cross sectional study. BMC: Family Pract. Additional file 2004;5:31. 14. Chakraborti C, Bourgeois DJ, Gleeson E, Gunderson W. Identifying barriers to Additional file 1: The questionnaire of attitude to, knowledge of successful research during medical school. Med Educ Devel. 2012;2(e2):1–7. and barriers towards research. 15. Wang, SC. & Guo, YJ. Counseling students’ attitudes toward research methods class. Retrieved from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/ vistas11/Article_30.pdf (2011) Competing interests 16. Shewan LG, Glatz JA, Bennett C, Coats AJ. Contemporary (postwills) survey The authors declare that they have no competing interests. of the views of Australian medical researchers: importance of funding, Memarpour et al. Asia Pacific Family Medicine (2015) 14:1 Page 7 of 7 infrastructure and motivators for a research career. Med J Aust. 2005;183:606–11. 17. Gill S, Levin A, Djurdjev O, Yoshida E. Obstacles to residents’ conducting research and predictors of publication. Acad Med. 2001;76:477. 18. Levine RB, Herbert RS, Wright SM. Resident research and scholarly activity in internal medicine residency training programs. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20:155–9. 19. Jowett SM, Macleod J, Wilson S, Hobbs FD. Research in primary care: extent of involvement and perceived determinants among practitioners form one English region. Br J Gen Prac. 2000;50:387–9. 20. Rivera JA, Levine RB, Wright SM. Completing a scholarly project during residency training. Perspectives of residents who have been successful. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20:366–9. 21. Buddeberg-Fischer B, Herta KD. Formal mentoring programmes for medical students and doctors-a review of the Medline literature. Med Teach. 2006;28:248–57. 22. Laskowitz DT, Drucker RP, Parsonnet J, Cross PC, Gesundheit N. Engaging students in dedicated research and scholarship during medical school: the long-term experiences at Duke and Stanford. Acad Med. 2010;85:419–28. 23. Askew DA, Clavarino AN, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB. General practice research: attitudes and involvement of Queensland general practitioners. Med J Aust. 2002;177:74–7. 24. Farooq S. Needed a research agenda. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2003;15:1–2. 25. Dakik HA, Kaidbey H, Sabra R. Research productivity of the medical faculty at the American University of Beirut. Postgrad Med J. 2006;82:462–4. 26. Siemens DR, Sanoj P, James W, Nimira K. A survey on the attitudes towards research in medical school. BMC Med Educ. 2010;10:4. 27. Pruskil S, Burgwinkel P, Georg W, Keil T, Kiessling C. Medical students’ attitudes towards science and involvement in research activities: a comparative study with students from a reformed and a traditional curriculum. Med Teach. 2009;31:e254–9. 28. Hren D, Lukić IK, Marušić A, Vodopivec I, Vujaklija A, Hrabak M, et al. Teaching research methodology in medical schools: students’ attitudes towards and knowledge about science. Med Educ. 2004;38:81–6. 29. Aslam F, Qayuum MA, Mahmud H, Qasim R, Haque IU. Attitudes and practices of postgraduate medical trainees towards research – a snapshot from faisalabad. JPMA. 2004;54:534. 30. Mowla A, Nabavizadeh SA, Bajestan MN, Tavakoli A, Seifi A, Tavakoli A. Payment as motivator in Iranian medical students’ attitudes toward research. South Med J. 2006;99(12):1403. 31. Schrier RW. Ensuring the survival of the clinician- scientist. Acad Med. 1997;72:589–94. Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and take full advantage of: • Convenient online submission • Thorough peer review • No space constraints or color ﬁgure charges • Immediate publication on acceptance • Inclusion in PubMed, CAS, Scopus and Google Scholar • Research which is freely available for redistribution Submit your manuscript at www.biomedcentral.com/submit
Asia Pacific Family Medicine – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 11, 2015
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.