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Comparative study was conducted to observe the efficacy of different feeding regimes on growth of Channa punctata. Six iso- proteinous diets were prepared by using different agro industrial by-products. Maximum weight gain was recorded with diet having 66.75% rice bran, 11.50% mustard cake, 23.0% groundnut cake, 5% molasses, 1.5% vitamin-mineral mixture and 0.5% salt with specific growth rate of 0.408. The experimental fish recorded the value of exponent ‘b’ in the range of 2.7675 to 4.3922. The condition factor ‘K’ of all experimental fish was above 1.0 (1.094- 1.235) indicating robustness or well being of experimented fish. Keywords: Channa punctata; Formulated diets; Condition factor; Correlation coefficient; Growth Introduction Materials and methods The spotted snakehead, Channa punctata (Bloch) is well Experimental setup known for its taste, high nutritive value and medicinal The study was conducted at the Fish Farm of College of qualities (Haniffa et al. 2004) and is recommended as a Fisheries, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal diet during convalescence (Chakraborty 2006). It is dis- Sciences University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India (30.54°N tributed throughout the South-East Asian countries and latitude, 75.48°E longitude and an altitude of 247 m above has been identified as a potential species for rearing in mean sea level). The growth of fish was assessed w.r.t. dif- paddy fields, derelict and swampy water as it is an air ferent formulated diets over a period of 90 days. The stud- breathing and hardy fish. It has high market value be- ies were conducted in PVC cistern (1.50 m×1.0 m ×1.0 m) cause of the flavour and availability throughout the year. in triplicate. 5 cm soil bed was provided in each cistern The fish is suitable for both monoculture and polycul- and water depth was maintained 50 cm throughout ture. Good deal of work has been carried out on differ- the study period. Each cistern was stocked with 25 fin- ent aspects of survival and growth, length-weight gerlings (average length = 11.645± 0.3145 cm, average relationship, condition factor of C. punctata in India and wt. = 11.961 ± 0.1348 g) of Channa punctata collected abroad (Victor and Akpocha 1992; Dutta 1994; Bias et al. from wild source. 1994; Alam and Parween 2001; Islam et al. 2004; Kumar et al. 2013). However, limited studies are conducted on Formulated diets growth and culture potentiality of this species. Therefore Six isonitrogenous diets (33.19 – 35.23% crude protein the present work has been carried out to study the efficacy on dry weight basis) i.e. D ,D ,D ,D ,D and D were 1 2 3 4 5 6 of different formulated diets on survival and growth rate formulated using agroindustrial byproducts like rice of C. punctata. bran, mustard cake, fish meal, ground nut cake and soy- bean meal (Tables 1 and 2). For preparation of diets, all feed ingredients (dry) were first grounded to a small par- ticle size in a laboratory electric grinder and sieved through an approximately 250 μm sieve. Ingredients * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org were thoroughly mixed in a food mixer for 15 minutes. College of Fisheries, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004, India Enough water was slowly added to make stiff dough. © 2013 Datta et al.; licensee Springer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Datta et al. SpringerPlus 2013, 2:436 Page 2 of 5 http://www.springerplus.com/content/2/1/436 Table 1 Percent composition of experimental diets 0.1 mm using a 30 cm ruler as the distance from the tip Ingredients D D D D D D of the anterior most part of the body to the tip of the 1 2 3 4 5 6 caudal fin. Analytical balances with precision of 0.01 g Rice bran 67.11 73.15 66.75 76.49 71.86 69.29 were used to record body wet weight (BW). Mustard cake 10.85 26.92 11.50 7.84 9.38 10.46 Fish meal 21.70 ---- 6.75 Following growth analysis were calculated Groundnut cake - - 23.0 - 9.38 6.75 Soybean meal - - - 9.38 1.88 6.75 LogeðÞ Final weight ‐LogeðÞ Initial weight i. Specific growth rateðÞ SGR ¼ 100 Culture days Additives in all diets: Vitamin-mineral mixture = 1.5%, Salt = 0.5%, Where, weight recorded in gram. Molasses = 5%. ii. Length-weight relationship: The length-weight (log-transformed) relationships were determined by linear regression analysis and scatter diagrams of The wet mixture was steamed for 5 minutes and the length and weight were plotted. The length-weight diets were produced in a noodle-like shape of 2.0 mm relationship of the experimented fish is worked out in diameter using a meat grinder. The pelleted diets as per cube law given by Le Cren (1951). were dried overnight at 55°C afterwards were broken up and sieved into appropriate pellet sizes. Proximate W ¼ aL composition of feed ingredients and formulated diets Where, W=Weight of fish (g), L is observed total was determined following the standard methods of length (cm), ‘a’ is the regression intercept and ‘b’ is AOAC (2005). the regression slope. The logarithmic transformation of the above Feeding of fish formula is- Fish were fed with formulated diets @ 2% of body weight at 10 am daily. The feed quantity was regulated Log W ¼ log a þ b log L based on the fortnightly sampling of 10 fingerlings from iii. Fulton’s condition factor (K): Fulton’s condition each treatment. factor (K) was calculated according to Htun-Han (1978) equation as per formula given below: Water analysis Throughout the study period physico–chemical param- W 100 K ¼ eters of water samples including water temperature, pH, L3 dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, hardness, NH -N, Where, W=weight of fish (g), L=Length of fish (cm). NO -N, NO -N and PO -P were measured following 3 2 4 standard methods (APHA 2005). Statistical analysis Growth analysis The analysis of covariance was performed to determine Fish were measured in terms of weight gain and increase variation in ‘b’ values for each species following method of in length. Total length (TL) was measured to the nearest Snedecor and Cochran (1967). The statistical significance Table 2 Proximate composition (% DM basis) of feed ingredients and experimental diets Ingredients Moisture Crude protein Ether extract Crude fibre Ash NFE Rice bran 14.20 26.70 1.4 8.89 7.18 41.63 Mustard cake 13.20 57.53 1.5 7.58 7.22 12.97 Fish meal 14.65 46.80 3.0 2.99 29.76 3.25 Groundnut cake 13.95 44.59 2.5 7.81 4.21 26.94 Soybean meal 13.05 66.48 1.5 5.73 5.26 8.01 D 16.00 34.22 2.66 7.68 16.12 23.32 D 17.25 33.68 1.45 10.68 7.14 30.29 D 17.00 34.10 1.90 9.73 5.80 30.34 D 15.10 33.94 1.12 9.36 5.48 35.60 D 15.15 33.74 1.75 9.49 6.13 33.94 D 14.85 34.35 1.95 9.23 10.34 28.49 6 Datta et al. SpringerPlus 2013, 2:436 Page 3 of 5 http://www.springerplus.com/content/2/1/436 Table 3 Water quality parameters of different treatments Tanks D D D D D D 1 2 3 4 5 6 Temperature °C 30.450 ± 2.717 30.612 ± 2.717 30.269 ± 2.294 29.821 ± 2.363 29.22 ± 1.683 29.672 ± 1.959 pH 8.070 ± 0.403 8.110 ± 0.428 8.204 ± 0.386 8.171 ± 0.382 8.217 ± 0.376 8.242 ± 0.369 DO (mg/l) 2.355 ± 1.316 2.202 ± 1.356 3.059 ± 1.401 2.611 ± 2.050 2.989 ± 2.187 3.469 ± 2.694 Alkalinity (mg/l) 411.090 ± 43.994 424.363 ± 43.797 363.272 ± 72.901 425.45 ± 46.79 445.09 ± 45.889 404.00 ± 36.57 Hardness (mg/l) 378.667 ± 23.626 340.000 ± 11.313 373.332 ± 26.599 372.00 ± 37.09 362.00 ± 28.33 349.33 ± 24.07 Ammonia (mg/l) 0.3591 ± 0.124 0.4245 ± 0.116 0.320 ± 0.111 0.3409 ± 0.114 0.3273 ± 0.117 0.2909 ± 0.108 Phosphate (mg/l) 1.750 ± 0.765 1.540 ± 0.745 1.654 ± 0.782 1.622 ± 0.707 1.582 ± 0.718 1.613 ± 0.773 Nitrite - NO (mg/l) 0.197 ± 0.222 0.182 ± 0.222 0.116 ± 0.222 0.114 ± 0.222 0.077 ± 0.222 0.165 ± 0.222 Nitrate - NO (mg/l) 0.308 ± 0.322 0. 340 ± 0.447 0.396 ± 0.428 0.395 ± 0. 361 0.393 ± 0.389 0.349 ± 0.406 Values are Mean ± Standard Deviation. of the isometric exponent (b) was analyzed by a function: co-efficient ‘b’ and logarithmic relationship between ts = (b-3) / S (Sokal and Rohlf 1987), where ts is the‘t’ length and weight with regression equation is given in student statistics test value, ‘b’ is the slope and S is the Tables 5, 4 and Figure 1. In the present study final ‘b’ standard error of ‘b’. The comparison between obtained varied between 2.7675 to 4.3922. Growth is said to be values of t-test and the respective critical values allowed positive allometric when the weight of an organism in- the determination of the ‘b’ values statistically significant creases more than length (b>3) and negative allometric and their inclusion in the isometric range (b=3) or allo- when length increases more than weight (b<3) (Wootton metric range (negative allometric; b<3). Statistical software 1992). When TL was regressed with BW, the slope value SPSS 14 and PAST Ver. 1.8 used for analysing the data. was significantly lower than critical isometric value i.e. 3, in treatment D and D indicating negative algometric 1 6 Results and discussion growth; thus species become slender as it increases in Lower dissolved oxygen content of water did not create length (Pauly 1984) where as b value was higher than 3 in any adverse effect on survival and growth of fish because D ,D ,D and D treatment, indicating the species be- 2 3 4 5 of the accessory respiratory organ present in Channa comes heavier for its weight, as it grows longer (Thakur punctata (Table 3). There were no significant differences and Das 1974). The results of the present study is in con- in water quality parameters viz. temperature, pH, dissolved formity with the views of Le Cren (1951) and Chauhan oxygen, total alkalinity, Hardness, NH -N, NO -N, NO - (1987) that a fish normally does not retain the same shape 3 3 2 Nand PO -P observed among different treatments and all or body outline throughout their lifespan and specific these parameters (except dissolved oxygen content) were gravity of tissue may not remain constant, the actual within the range as suggested by Boyd and Pillai (1984); relationship may depart significantly from the cube law. Rowland (1986) and Boyd and Tucker (1998) but signifi- Negative allometric growth pattern have been reported in cant variation was observed within a single treatments in C. punctata by Haniffa et al. (2006) and Ali et al. (2002). time series data of different parameters. Negative allometric growth has also been reported in C. 100% survival of fish was observed in all treatments. maurulius (Dua and Kumar 2006; Rathod et al. 2011) and Specific growth rate was observed maximum in D in C. Striatus (Khan et al. 2011). Variation in slope may be followed by D ,D ,D D and D respectively (Table 4). attributed to sample size variation, life stages and environ- 4 5 2, 6 1, Initial and final average weight (g), Length – weight rela- mental factors (Kleanthids et al. 1999). The higher slope Table 4 Final length weight relationship of fishes reared in experimental tanks Tank Final average Specific growth Logarithmic equation Log Correlation Coefficient of Condition factor ‘K’‘b’ weight (g) rate (%/day) W = log a + b log L coefficient ‘r’ determination ‘r ’ D 21.67 0.281 Log W = log 0.0151 + 2.7675 log L 0.789 0.622 1.094 2.767 D 24.25 0.334 Log W = log 0.0003 + 4.3922 log L 0.930 0.865 1.116 4.392 D 27.77 0.408 Log W = log 0.0011 + 3.866 log L 0.939 0.881 1.210 3.866 D 25.66 0.376 Log W = log 0.0012 + 3.820 log L 0.944 0.892 1.171 3.820 D 24.66 0.346 Log W = log 0.0042 + 3.3254 log L 0.876 0.768 1.334 3.325 D 22.16 0.302 Log W = log 0.0118 + 2.888 log L 0.913 0.834 1.235 2.888 6 Datta et al. SpringerPlus 2013, 2:436 Page 4 of 5 http://www.springerplus.com/content/2/1/436 Table 5 Initial length weight relationship of fishes reared factors (Le Cren 1951). This also indicates the changes in in experimental tanks food reserves and therefore an indicator of the general Tank Initial average Initial logarithmic equation Initial ‘b’ fish condition. Moreover, body condition provides an al- weight (g) Log W = log a + b log L value ternative to the expensive in vitro proximate analyses of D 12.09 Log W = log 0.0288 + 2.474log L 2.474 tissues (Sutton et al. 2000). Therefore, information on D 12.13 Log W = log 0.0117 + 2.862 log L 2.862 condition factor can be vital to culture system manage- ment because they provide the producer with information D 11.91 Log W = log 0.012 + 2.851log L 2.851 of the specific condition under which organisms are de- D 11.76 Log W = log 0.0014 + 3.775 log L 3.775 veloping (Araneda et al. 2008). The values of condition D 12.04 Log W = log 0.0104 + 2.917log L 2.917 factor ‘K’ recorded in the present study are 1.094, 1.116, D 11.84 Log W = log 0.0107+ 2.925log L 2.925 1.210,1.171, 1.334 and 1.235 in D ,D ,D ,D D and 1 2 3 4, 5 D , respectively. Condition factor of greater than one showed the well being of fishes fed with different experi- of C. punctata in D ,D ,D and D reflect the faster mental diets. The values of ‘K’ in D ,D ,D D and D 2 3 4 5 2 3 4, 5 6 growth compared to D and D in the present study. were higher than D , suggesting that fish fed with diet 1 6 1 The condition factor (K) of a fish reflects physical and bio- containing different experimental diets (Table 5) were logical circumstances and fluctuations by interaction among much more robust than the fish fed with diet in D .The feeding conditions, parasitic infections and physiological results are conformity with the study of Chandra and Figure 1 Final logarithmic relationship between length and weight with regression equation of Channa punctata in experimental cysterns. Datta et al. SpringerPlus 2013, 2:436 Page 5 of 5 http://www.springerplus.com/content/2/1/436 Jhan (2010) who recorded the K value of Channa Dutta SPS (1994) Food and feeding habits of Channa punctata (Bloch) inhabiting Gadigarh Stream, Jammu. J Freshwat Biol 6(4):333–336 punctata in the range of 1.05 – 1.89. Haniffa MA, Marimuthu K, Nagarajan M, Arokiaraj AJ, Kumar D (2004) Breeding The co-efficient of determination (r ) values explained behaviour and parental care of the induced breed spotted Murrel Channa the proper fit of the model for growth. In the present punctata under captivity. Curr Sci 86(10):1375–1376 Haniffa MA, Nagarajan M, Gopalakrishnan A (2006) Length-weight relationship of study, lowest value of r of Channa punctata were Channa punctata from Western Ghat Rivers of Tamil Nadu. J Appl Ichthyol recorded as 0.622 (62% variability) in D and highest 22:308–309 recorded as 0.892 (89% variability) in D (Table 4) Htun-Han M (1978) The reproductive biology of the dab Limanda limanada (L.) in the North Sea: gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and condition indicating more than 62% variability by the model and factor. J Fish Biol 13(1):351–377 good fitness. 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Owen P, Bowden J (ed) Freshwater aquaculture in Australia, Brisbane, 1st edition. Rural Press Queensland, Australia Competing interests Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1967) Statistical methods. Oxford and IBH Publishing The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Co, New Delhi Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1987) Introduction to biostatistics, 2nd edition. Freeman Authors’ contributions Publication, New York SN, VI and A planned and designed the experiment. G helped in analysis. SN Sutton SG, Bult TP, Haedrich RL (2000) Relationships among fat weight, body and A wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. weight, water weight and condition factors in wild Atlantic salmon parr. T Am Fish Soc 129:527–538 Thakur NK, Das MK (1974) Length-weight relationship of Heteropneustes fossilis Acknowledgements (Bloch). 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