Energy expenditures for reproduction in local populations of the pied flycatcher in the environs of the Middle Urals Copper Smelter (Revda, Sverdlovsk oblast) have been estimated on the basis of the results of long-term studies (1989–2008). It is shown that the total energy expenditures per fledgling over the nesting period are 1.2 times higher than in the background area, which is explained by increased energy losses (by a factor of 4.1) resulting from partial mortality of the progeny (eggs or nestlings). Variation in the average energy “cost” of one fledgling in the heavily polluted zone is also higher, compared to the background area. Average energy expenditures per fledgling increase in years with cold weather, and the same is observed when the birds lay larger clutches.
Russian Journal of Ecology – Springer Journals
Published: May 15, 2012
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