CD38 is a type-II transmembrane glycoprotein occurring in several hematopoietic and mature blood cells as well as in other cell types, including neurons. Although classified as an orphan receptor, CD38 is also a bifunctional ectoenzyme that catalyzes both the conversion of NAD+ to nicotinamide and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), via an ADP-ribosyl cyclase reaction, and also the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-ribose (hydrolase). Major unresolved questions concern the correlation between receptor and catalytic properties of CD38, and also the apparent contradiction between ectocellular generation and intracellular Ca2+-mobilizing activity of cADPR. Results are presented that provide some explanations to this topological paradox in two different cell types. In cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons, extracellular cADPR (either generated by CD38 or directly added) elicited an enhanced intracellular Ca2+ response to KCl-induced depolarization, a process that can be qualified as a Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) mechanism. On the other hand, in the CD38+ human Namalwa B lymphoid cells, NAD+ (and thiol compounds as well) induced a two-step process of self-aggregation followed by endocytosis of CD38, which resulted in a shift of cADPR metabolism from the cell surface to the cytosol. Both distinctive types of cellular responses to extracellular NAD+ seem to be suitable to elicit changes in the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 27, 2007
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