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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(1): 24–30. ARTICLE March 2017 Distribution and abundance of Pectoral Antwren (Herpsilochmus pectoralis) and Caatinga Antwren (Herpsilochmus sellowi) in the Atlantic Rainforest of northeast Brazil 1,3 2 2 Marcelo da Silva , Marcio Zikán Cardoso & Mauro Pichorim Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Coordenação de Zoologia, Av. Magalhães Barata, 376, São Braz, CEP 66040-170, Belém, PA, Brazil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte - UFRN, Departamento de Botânica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Campus Universitário, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078-900, Natal, RN, Brazil. Corresponding author: email@example.com Received on 20 August 2014. Accepted on 15 March 2017. ABSTRACT: The Pectoral Antwren (Herpsilochmus pector alis) and Caatinga Antwren (H. sellowi) are thamnophilids endemic to northeastern Brazil. The Pectoral Antwren is considered an “ Endangered” species by the IUCN. The present study aimed at providing data on the distribution, abundance, habitat, and conservation status of these species in Rio Grande do Norte state (RN), Brazil, in order to help define conservation strategies for the species. Thirty-three sites in the Atlantic Forest domain were sampled between November 2005 and March 2008, for a total sampling effort of 414 h. O bservations took place mainly between 5:30 h and 12:00 h, and records were based on visual and/or auditory detections. Standardized censuses were conducted in four different phytophysiognomies to determine abundance and density. Herpsilochmus pectoralis was found in 73% (n = 24) of the sampled areas, mean density was estimated at 89.1 individuals.km and population size was approximately 13,921 individuals for the state. Available area of occupancy was 156.25 km . Herpsilochmus sellowi was present in 39% (n = 13) of the areas, with mean density of 60.4 2 2 individuals.km , estimated population of 7202 and area of occupancy of 119.25 km . The population estimate found in this study for H. pectoralis is high for a small geographical area, thus demonstrate that BirdLife International information is underestimated. These data widen knowledge of the species at local and national levels, in addition to confirming the importance of H. pector alis in RN state. The low nu mber of protected areas in the region is alarming, given that privately-owned areas face fragmentation, selective deforesting, burnings and significant real estate development. KEY-WORDS: conservation, density, habitat, population, threatened bird. INTRODUCTION forest, deciduous forest, and wooded restinga (coastal tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest) from The genus Herpsilochmus Cabanis, 1847 is exclusively northeastern Maranhão, east to Rio Grande do Norte and south to Bahia (Cory & Hellmayr 1924, Pinto 1978, Neotropical and contains 17 species, with the highest diversity in the Amazon Basin (Zimmer & Isler 2003, Ridgely & Tudor 1994, Sick 1997, Zimmer & Isler 2003, Remsen-Jr. et al. 2014). Twelve species are found in Brazil Silva et al. 2008, Silveira 2008, BirdLife International (Piacentini et al. 2015), five of which are endemic to the 2017). The Caatinga Antwren Herpsilochmus sellowi is country: Caatinga Antwren Herpsilochmus sellowi, Bahia distributed from the state of Maranhão to Bahia and Minas Gerais with a disjoint population (Whitney et al. Antwren H. pileatus, Predicted Antwren H. praedictus, Aripuana Antwren H. stotzi and Pectoral Antwren H. 2000). Although it has been associated to the Caatinga, pectoralis. Since they are predominantly forest species, they it also occurs in the restinga, open savannas, as well as have been threatened by fragmentation and loss of habitat. in deciduous and nondeciduous forests (Olmos 1993, As a result, some are globally “Endangered” (BirdLife Whitney et al. 2000, Zimmer & Isler 2003, Silva et al. 2008). Because information about distribution, ecology International 2000, 2017). The Pectoral Antwren H. pectoralis is a threatened species (IUCN 2004, BirdLife and population parameters of these species is scarce, International 2017) distributed locally in semideciduous systematic studies are needed to establish conservationist Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(1): 2017 Distribution and abundance of Pectoral Antwren and Caatinga Antwren in Brazil Silva et al. measures (Zimmer & Isler 2003). Accordingly, this study 2005 and March 2008 (sampling effort of 414 man.h) aims to broaden knowledge on geographic distribution, (Table 1). The study areas are situated on the east coast, viable habitat, and estimated regional population of H. between the towns of Maxaranguape and Baía Formosa pectoralis and H. sellowi in northeastern Brazil. (Fig. 1). The eastern portion of RN has mean annual rainfall of 1400 mm, and its climate is defined as type “A” according to Köppen's classification system (rain METHODS concentrated between February and July) (IDEMA 2002). Sampling locations were chosen based on plant Thirty-three sites in 16 municipalities located in cover identified on satellite images. Forest fragments in the Atlantic Forest of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), the domain of Atlantic Forest in the state which had 50 northeastern Brazil, were sampled between November or more ha were sampled. Table 1. Locations sampled in the Atlantic Forest domain in Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, with respective geographic coordinates, area size, sampling effort and number of contacts with Herpsilochmus pector alis and Herpsilochmus sellowi. Number of detections Geographic Coordinates Area Effor t Location and Municipality and Altitude (in m a.s.l.) (km ) (h) H. pectoralis H. sellowi 1. Lagoa do Pacheco, Maxaranguape 05°29'35''S; 35°16'25''W, 34 m 0.88 5 8 10 2. Muriu Militar Area, Ceará Mirim 05°32'44''S; 35°16'38''W, 32 m 6.16 6 14 16 3. Caiana, Ceará Mirim 05°37'08''S; 35°14'04''W, 48 m 3.80 10 0 4 4. Cachoeirinha de Pitangui, Extremoz 05°36'10''S; 35°14'20''W, 15 m 2.00 4 0 0 5. Imbiribeira, Extremoz 05°38'38''S; 35°15'00''W, 38 m 2.90 12 0 11 6. Contenda, Extremoz 05°39'44''S; 35°13'36''W, 34 m 0.90 12 0 0 7. Estivas, Extremoz 05°40'56''S; 35°15'40''W, 34 m 5.28 50 145 126 8. APA Jenipabu, Extremoz 05°42'05''S; 35°12'25''W, 34 m 18.18 22 24 14 9. Guajiru, São Gonçalo do Amarante 05°44'26''S; 35°18'32''W, 45 m 0.60 4 0 0 10. Dunas State Park of Natal, Natal 05°50'12''S; 35°11'40''W, 70 m 11.72 30 203 91 11. Morro do Careca, Natal/Barreira do 05°53'02''S; 35°09'34''W, 30 m 11.00 12 5 4 Inferno Parnamirim 12. Mata do Catre Military Area, 05°53'01''S; 35°13'36''W, 49 m 2.15 5 2 0 Parnamirim 13. Industrial Park, Parnamirim 05°52'41''S; 35°14'36''W, 28 m 0.88 40 177 17 14. Mata do Jiqui, Parnamirim 05°55'45''S; 35°11'21''W, 39 m 0.79 20 60 0 15. Mata de Jundiaí, Macaíba 05°53'21''S; 35°23'07''W, 56 m 2.70 30 13 48 16. Pium, Nizia Floresta 05°57'30''S; 35°10'23''W, 51 m 0.50 3 2 0 17. Lagoa do Bonfim, Nizia F loresta 06°01'44''S; 35°13'12''W, 37 m 1.10 3 2 0 18. Campo de Santana, Nizia Floresta 06°04'42''S; 35°06'30''W, 30 m 10.80 3 28 0 19. Golani, Nizia Floresta 06°07'44''S; 35°13'40''W, 90 m 1.10 6 34 0 20. Mendezinho I, São Jose de Mipibu 06°01'52''S; 35°16'10''W, 70 m 1.00 3 6 0 21. Mendezinho II, São Jose de Mipibu 06°01'39''S; 35º16'32''W, 53 m 0.76 5 2 1 22. Manimbu, São Jose de Mipibu 06°07'54''S; 35°13'44''W, 90 m 1.70 2 24 0 23. Areal, Senador Georgino Avelino 06°08'27''S; 35°06'13''W, 26 m 1.70 2 3 0 24. Urucará, Ares 06°09'50''S; 35°13'30''W, 52 m 2.90 16 2 0 25. Baldum, Ares 06°11'12''S; 35°13'09''W, 40 m 4.70 4 4 0 26. Mata do Bastião, Tibau do Sul 06°13'46''S; 35°04'08''W, 21 m 0.50 5 2 0 27. Ecological Sanctuary of Pipa, Tibau do Sul 06°13'35''S; 35°03'56''W, 60 m 0.80 20 52 2 28. Limoal, Goianinha 06°14'16''S; 35°13'19''W, 21 m 11.40 3 4 0 29. Fazenda Bom Jardim, Goianinha 06°18'25''S; 35°14'03''W, 90 m 6.46 5 0 0 30. APA Piquiri-Una, Timbó, Espírito Santo 06°22'30''S; 35°17'17''W, 44 m 10.50 12 0 20 31. RPPN Mata Estrela, Baía Formosa 06°22'25''S; 35°01'24''W, 64 m 20.39 36 40 0 32. Mata da Bela, Baía Formosa 06°25'12''S; 35°07'04''W, 21 m 1.00 15 0 0 33. Mata da Paraíba, Canguaretama 06°26'47''S; 35°07'26''W, 71 m 1.70 9 0 0 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(1): 2017 Distribution and abundance of Pectoral Antwren and Caatinga Antwren in Brazil Silva et al. Figure 1. Geographic distribution of Herpsilochmus spp. in the Atlantic Forest of Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil. White circle means absence of Herpsilochmus; black circle indicates syntopy between H. pectoralis (HP) and H. sellowi (HS); white triangle indicates records of H. sellowi; black triangle indicates sympatry between H. pectoralis, H. atricapillus (HA) and H. rufimarginatus (HR); black square indicates syntopy between H. pectoralis, H. sellowi and H. atricapillus; white square indicates the presence of H. pectoralis; white diamond indicates the presence of H. atricapillus; black diamond indicates syntopy between H. pectoralis and H. atricapillus; asterisk indicates syntopy between H. sellowi and H. atricapillus. Areas: 1. Lagoa do Pacheco, 2. Muriu Militar Area, 3. Caiana, 4. Cachoeirinha de Pitangui, 5. Imbiribeira, 6. Contenda, 7. Estivas, 8. APA Jenipabu, 9. Guajiru, 10. Dunas State Park of Natal, 11. Morro do Careca, 12. Mata do Catre Military Area, 13. Industrial Park, 14. Mata do Jiqui, 15. Mata de Jundiai, 16. Pium, 17. Lagoa do Bonfim, 18. Campo de Santana, 19. Golani, 20. Mendezinho I, 21. Mendezinho II, 22. Manimbu, 23. Areal, 24. Urucará, 25. Baldum, 26. Mata do Bastião, 27. Ecological Sanctuary of Pipa, 28. Limoal, 29. Fazenda Bom Jardim, 30. APA Piquiri-Una, 31. RPPN Mata Estrela, 32. Mata da Bela and 33. Mata da Paraíba. We searched for the species along trails and/or roads Sennheiser-ME-66 microphone, which were archived at in the study areas, mainly between 5:30 h and 12:00 h Wikiaves digital repository. Geographic coordinates and and sometimes between 14:00 h and 17:00 h. Records altitudes were obtained with Magellan 315 or Garmin 12 were based on visual (aided by 8 × 21 binoculars) and GPS. auditory detections. The following information was At Mata de Jundiaí, Industrial Park, Estivas and recorded at each observation: species observed, number Dunas Park, areas which represent different vegetation of individuals, habitat, and presence of congener species. types, anthropic impacts and/or are conservation units The following tape recor ders were used to document under integral protection, we defined 1-km transects to information: Sony (DAT) TCD-D8 equipped with a estimate abundance and density of H. pectoralis and H. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(1): 2017 Distribution and abundance of Pectoral Antwren and Caatinga Antwren in Brazil Silva et al. sellowi. A 1-h standardized census was conducted at dawn Non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal-Wallis test) on each sampling day (onset at 5:30 h). We recorded was performed to test for abundance differences of both the number of individuals observed, taking care not to species among the habitats. The significance level was set attribute more than one detection to the same individual at 5% for all analyses. during the same sampling effort. Mean abundance was obtained by dividing the number of detections per species by the number of observation days at each location. In RESULTS order to estimate population density of the H. pectoralis and H. sellowi in areas, we used the linear transect method Herpsilochmus pectoralis was recorded in 24 (73%) of (Buckland et al. 1993, Tho mas et al. 2002). This requires the 33 locations sampled. Distribution limits in the following the premises of decreasing order of importance: state were north (Lagoa do Pacheco, Maxaranguape), animals directly on the line are always detected, animals south (private reserve - RPPN Mata Estrela, Baia are detected in their initial position, before any movement Formosa) and west (Mata de Jundiaí, Macaiba) (Fig. 1). caused by the presence of the observer, perpendicular Herpsilochmus sellowi occurred in 13 (39%) of the 33 distances are measured correctly, and detections are locations studied (Fig. 1). The distribution limit of H. independent events (Buckland et al. 1993, Thomas et sellowi in the north coincided with that of the previous al. 2002). Density was calculated using the Distance 6.0 species (Fig. 1). Syntopy between H. pectoralis and H. software and models were selected according to Akaike's atricapillus occurred in six fragments, and between Information Criterion (AIC). The selected model to H. atricapillus and H. sellowi in a single area (Fig. 1). estimate density was half-normal with cosine adjustment. These three species only occurred together in Mata de The density and effective width were represented by Jundiaí, Ecological Sanctuary of Pipa and RPPN Mata coefficient of variation (%CV) and confidence interval Estrela. Herpsilochmus pectoralis, H. atricapillus and H. 95% (CI). Density was estimated using the formula D rufimarginatus were found jointly in the southernmost = N/(2*EW*L), where: D = density (individuals/km ), part of the state (RPPN Mata Estrela) (Fig. 1). There N = number of sightings, EW = effective width of the were several observations of mixed-species flocks sample area (in km) and L = total number of km surveyed containing H. pectoralis and H. atricapillus, and rare (Buckland et al. 1993). observations of flocks containing H. pector alis and Viable habitat was estimated for populations of H. sellowi. Other species often observed in mixed- H. pectoralis and H. sellowi, based primarily on similar species flocks with Herpsilochmus were Planalto Slaty- plant cover. In order to accomplish this we compared Antshrike Thamnophilus pelze lni, White-fringed satellite images of potential species distribution areas. To Antwren Formicivora grisea, Pearly-vented Tody-tyrant estimate viable areas we disregarded any cultivated area, Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer, Chivi Vireo Vireo chivi those in the process of regeneration or subjected to strong and Gray-eyed Greenlet Hylophilus amaurocephalus. anthropic pressure. We used Landsat images from 2002 Between 2005 and 2008, a total of 856 detections of (INPE 2007) and Ortofoto images from 2006 of the H. pectoralis and 364 of H. sellowi were recorded (Table 1). Rio Grande do Norte coast (IDEMA 2007). Areas with Abundance of H. pectoralis were different among habitats. adequate habitat were divided into quadrants of 500 × They were higher in semideciduous forest (Industrial Park 500 m to verify which quadrants were occupied by each = 35.4 individuals.day) and lower for deciduous forest of the species. The analyzes of adequate habitats and area (Mata de Jundiaí = 2.6 individuals.day) (H = 19.3, df = 3, of occupancy by species was performed inArcGIS 9.0 P < 0.001) (Table 2). There were also varying abundance software. in the different plant physiognomies for H. sellowi (H To estimate population size of H. pectoralis and = 15.1, df = 3, P < 0.001) (Table 2). The total number H. sellowi on the east coast of RN, occupancy area of contacts with H. pectoralis and H. sellowi in linear was multiplied by the means of density between the transects was 68 and 46, respectively, where a total of 80 different plant physiognomies and an estimate of density, km were covered. The density varied between the plant considering the whole study area. The first population physiognomies from 53.03 to 142.12 individuals.km for estimate is a more conservative estimate, where we H. pectoralis and from 40.49 to 76.57 individuals.km multiplied the mean density between the physiognomies for H. sellowi (Table 2). The estimates for all study areas by the occupancy area by each species. The second were 103.51 individuals.km for H. pectoralis and 57.28 population estimate multiplied the density found individuals.km for H. sellowi. throughout the study area by the occupancy area by each Estimated suitable habitat for H. pectoralis on species. the eastern coast of RN was 504.7 km . The most Descriptive statistical analyses (mean, standard representative plant formations were semideciduous 2 2 deviation, minimum and maximum values) are reported. forest (216.5 km ), restinga (114.3 km ), deciduous Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(1): 2017 Distribution and abundance of Pectoral Antwren and Caatinga Antwren in Brazil Silva et al. 2 2 2 forest (98.1 km ) and open savannas (75.8 km ). The area. The area of occupancy was 156.25 km (n = 625 only full-protection conservation area in the study region quadrants) and 119.25 km (n = 477 quadrants) for H. is the Dunas State Park of Natal, which contains 9.55 pectoralis and H. sellowi, respectively. km suitable for the species, corresponding to 2% of the Based on the combination of area of occupancy total area considered likely to be inhabited. There are also (156.25 km ) and mean density per plant physiognomy sustainable-use conservation areas accounting for 10% (mean density 89.1 individuals.km ) (Table 3), the (49.07 km ) of the estimated area. These environmental population was estimated at 13,921 H. pectoralis in Rio protection areas (APA Jenipabu and APA Piquiri-Una, n Grande do Norte and estimate for the area of study was = 2) represent 6% (28.68 km ) and RPPN Mata Estrela 16,173 individuals. Estimated area of occupancy for 2 2 4% (20.39 km ) of the estimated area. We also underscore H. sellowi in Atlantic Forest was 119.25 km , resulting the importance of military areas (Muriu Military Area in a population of 7202 individuals (mean density 60.4 and Mata do Catre Military Area, n = 2), which are well individuals.km ) (Table 3) and estimate for the area of preserved and represent 2% (8.31 km ) of the estimated study was 6830 individuals. Table 2. Abundance and density of Herpsilochmus pectoralis and Herpsilochmus sellowi at Mata de Jundiai, Industrial Park, Estivas and Dunas State Park of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, northeast of Brazil. Abundance and mean number of individuals obtained by census and population density based on calculations (individuals.km ). CV = Coefficient of Variation and CI = Confidence Interval). Herpsilochmus pectoralis Herpsilochmus sellowi Abundance Abundance Location Mean ± SD Density (% CV; CI 95%) Mean ± SD Density (% CV; CI 95%) (Min – Max) (Min – Max) Mata Jundiai 2.6 ± 1.3 67.84 (25.57; 39.50 – 116.52) 9.6 ± 1.5 57.83 (20.51; 37.69 – 88.74) (1 – 4) (8 – 11) Industrial Park 35.4 ± 12.7 142.12 (18.32; 98.03 – 206.05) 3.4 ± 1.9 76.57 (30.18; 39.77 – 147.42) (20 – 46) (1 – 6) Estivas 14.5 ± 5.0 53.03 (22.81; 32.98 – 85.28) 12.6 ± 3.4 66.73 (34.51; 32.16 – 138.46) (8 – 24) (8 – 16) Dunas Park 20.3 ± 5.9 93.39 (19.25; 62.98 – 138.48) 9.1 ± 2.8 40.49 (24.84; 24.11 – 68.01) (10 – 28) (5 – 14) Mean Density ± SD 89.1 ± 39.1 60.4 ± 15.3 Whole study area 103.51 (21.11; 61.96 – 172.95) 57.28 (11.58; 45.33 – 72.39) Table 3. Population estimate of Herpsilochmus pectoralis and Herpsilochmus sellowi in Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast of Brazil. Herpsilochmus pectoralis Herpsilochmus sellowi 2 2 PhysiognomySuitable habitat (km)Viable habitat (km ) Semideciduous forest 216.5 95.6 Deciduous forest 98.1 98.1 Restinga 114.3 37.7 Open savanna 75.8 80.6 Total area 504.7 312 Occupation area (km ) 156.25 119.25 Mean density (individuals.km ) 89.1 60.4 Population estimate (individuals) 13,921 7202 DISCUSSION contribute to knowledge of the geographic distribution of these species. The scant information available for H. Herpsilochmus pectoralis and H. sellowi are widely pectoralis in RN was restricted to three regions in the distributed on the eastern coast of the state of Rio south of the state, and to restingas of Baia Formosa and Tibau do Sul (Teixeira et al. 1993, Whitney et al. 2000, Grande do Norte, occurring in restingas, open savannas, Olmos 2003). Herpsilochmus sellowi was known only in deciduous and semideciduous forests. Data obtained Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(1): 2017 Distribution and abundance of Pectoral Antwren and Caatinga Antwren in Brazil Silva et al. the Ecological Sanctuary of Pipa in the municipality of H. pectoralis occurs reinforces the need for stablishing Tibau do Sul (Whitney et al. 2000). new protected areas, as suggested by Zimmer & Isler In RN H. pectoralis was found in plant formations (2003). It is also important to correctly manage these similar to those mentioned for other Brazilian states (Wege units through better control of anthropic influences & Long 1995, Parrini et al. 1999, Kirwan et al. 2001). such as the introduction of new species, invasion, access However, it was cited in areas with good conservation of domestic animals and people. There is a clear need status (Whitney et al. 2000). Our observations show to establish corridors between the best forest fragments that H. pectoralis is common even in fragmented and due to the existence of isolated populations such as those anthropized areas. Herpsilochmus sellowi is much more found in Dunas State Park of Natal. Due to their extent, widely distributed on the east coast of the state, but not number of records and estimated size of population, the found inland in the moist forest enclave of Martins, in following areas are important for the conservation of H. contrast to those in Pernambuco, where it occurs (Roda pectoralis: RPPN Mata Estrela, as reported by Bencke & 2002, Roda & Carlos 2004). This species, which is closely Maurício (2006), Muriu Military Area in Ceará Mirim, associated to the Caatinga (Whitney et al. 2000), has APA Jenipabu in Extremoz, Dunas State Park of Natal in been considered endemic to this biome (Parker-III et al. Natal, Morro do Careca in Natal/Barreira do Inferno in 1996). However, all our records of this species are in the Parnamirim, Mata do Jiqui in Parnamirim, Industrial Park Atlantic Forest domain. In studies conducted in other in Parnamirim, Campo de Santana in Nisia Floresta and areas of Caatinga this species is registered (Santos 2004, Limoal in Goianinha. We recommend that government Olmos et al. 2005), but in the RN state, recorded only authorities pay more attention to the conservation of had been made in restingas, open savannas, deciduous and these areas. We also underscore the importance of military semideciduous forests. areas for protecting habitats and threatened species. The few data available on H. pectoralis were only Despite the representative populations of H. qualitative, classifying the species as locally common pectoralis and H. sellowi in the state, they face short- or rare (Teixeira et al. 1993, Ridgely & Tudor 1994, term threats due to fragmentation and loss of habitat. Silveira 2008), but Teixeira et al. (2016) estimated the In some areas we observed deforestation for real estate density of this species in 85 individuals.km in a forest development, formation of pastures, and monocultures. fragment in Rio Grande do Norte. Densities found Real estate speculation in the coastal areas of the state for H. pectoralis and H. sellowi, despite using different is worrisome, since several large scale projects are being methods, are similar to those obtained for other common implemented along nearly the entire coast. Some of (e.g. Variable Antshrike Thamnophilus caerulescens, P lain these were approved without considering the presence Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis and White-backed Fire- of remnant populations of these species. Unplanned eye Pyriglena leucoptera) and threatened thamnophilids development, mainly in the city of Natal, also threatens (e.g. Rio Branco Antbird Cercomacra carbonaria and important areas for populations of H. pectoralis. Finally, Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis) (Duca et al. sugar cane burning has serious impacts on nearby forest 2006, Vale et al. 2007, Mattos et al. 2009). The estimated fragments. We suggest that these threats could reduce the population of H. pectoralis in RN state reached 13,920 sutable habitats of H. pectoralis by at least 50% in the individuals or a more optimistic estimate of about 16,170 next decade if current trends are not reversed. For theses individuals. This number exceeds the estimates of 3500 reason we emphasize the need to define conservation to 15,000 individuals in an 860,000 km of distribution plans for these species, as both occur in highly fragmented size (BirdLife International 2017), but this estimates take areas that are subject to anthropic pressures. In addition, into account a density of 2.6–9.6 individuals.km . The it is also recommended to conduct long-term studies on density found for species in forest fragments are much these populations to address questions about ecological larger and similar to that found for other species of the and behavioral aspects such as reproduction, home range, thamnophilidae family. Based on this new species density territory, and environmental requirements. information, BirdLife International (2017) information seems to be underestimated. We found the species occurring in small fragments of forest and well altered, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS showing that the species tolerates altered areas. But this species had lost suitable areas with the expansion of sugar We would like to thank Professors Gilberto Corso and cane cultivation and the growth of cities, and today it Iracema Bezerra Loiola and biologist Sônia Aline Roda for continues to have its habitat destroyed for infrastructure criticisms, suggestions, and revisions of the manuscript. activities along the coast of Rio Grande do Norte and We thank biologists Miguel Rocha Neto, Bruno Rodrigo popular houses. França and Luiz Yoshihiro, and Jailton Santos da Costa The large number of unprotected private areas where for fieldwork assistance. Gentil Ferreira de Souza and Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(1): 2017 Distribution and abundance of Pectoral Antwren and Caatinga Antwren in Brazil Silva et al. L.F., Betini G.S., Carrano E., Franz I., Lees A.C., Lima L.M., Marcus Vinícius Carmo Guimarães, from Usina Estivas Pioli D., Schunck F., Amaral F.R., Bencke G.A., Cohn-Haft M., S.A. allowed access to private areas. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 1, 2017
Keywords: conservation; density; habitat; population; threatened bird
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