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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 31–39. ARTICLE March 2019 Diet of Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus s s) 1,5 2 3 4 Fagner Daniel Teixeira , Elisa Paraíso Mesquita a a , Michele Alves Ferreira a a & Felipe de Carvalho Araújo Avenida João Gonçalves Teixeira, 22, Bairro Glória, Carmópolis de Minas, MG, Brazil. Rua Coronel Pedro Jorge, 26, Bairro Prado, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Rua Gustavo da Silveira, 1000, Bairro Horto Florestal, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Departamento de Ciências Florestais, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Received on 12 November 2018. Accepted on 21 February 2019. ABSTRACT: Th e Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus s) is a top predator and inhabits mainly preserved forests. It occurs from Mexico to Argentina and throughout Brazil, where it is threatened by extinction. It hunts birds, mammals and reptiles, picking up both on the ground and on the branches in the forest. Here we report data on a pair and one young individual of this species registered in the southeast of Minas Gerais state, eastern portion of the Espinhaço Range, Brazil. In addition, a literature review on the diet of the species was carried out aiming gather data on food habits. Th e nesting territory, as well as the nest was discovered in semi-deciduous seasonal forest area. We recorded predation of a Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus s) by the young. After two days of observation, the nest was overthrown, what allowed its screening for other food items discovered after analysis of some feathers and bones. Detailed records of predation of S. ornatus s were non-existent or inaccurate. Taking together our own field observation and the literature review, we found 121 taxa consumed by S. ornatus. A total of 78 bird species were reported, mainly Galliformes, followed by medium-sized mammals (38 species), well represented by Rodentia and Primates. KEY-WORDS: birds of prey, diet, nesting, predation, review. INTRODUCTION habitat loss and low breeding rate has been threatening of extinction this species, with the populations decreasing The Ornate Hawk-Ea gle Spizaetus ornatus s is a large throughout its occurrence area (Márquez et alll. 2000). and imposing bird of prey from the family Acciptridae. It is not a surprise that Ornate Hawk-Eagle is globally The species' size ran ges from 56 to 68.5 cm in length “Near Threatened ” (BirdLife International 2016), and (Howell & Webb 1995) and 820 to 1272 g in body has been listed as threatened in several locations, such as mass (Dunning-Jr. 2008). Ornate Hawk-Eagle occurs in Paraguay (del Castillo & Clay 2005). In Brazil, S. ornatus rainforest, wetlands, riparian forests, seasonally deciduous is “Critically Endangered” in the states of Rio Grande and semi-deciduous forests, up to elevations of ~1800 m do Sul (Rio Grande do Sul 2014), São Paulo (Silveira et a.s.l. (Íñigo et alll. 1987, del Hoyo et alll. 1994, Ferguson- alll. 2009), Espírito Santo (Simon et alll. 2007) and Santa Lees & Christie 2001). Ornate Hawk-Eagle has a wide Catarina (CONSEMA 2011), and “Endangered” in distribution, from Mexico to the northern of Argentina Paraná (Mikich & Bérnils 2004), Rio de Janeiro (Alves et and Paraguay, including all Brazil (Ferguson-Lees & alll. 2000) and Minas Gerais (Copam 2010). Christie 2001), but it is considered rare throughout its The overall ne gative impacts of habitat changes in range, mainly in southern populations such as in northern the distribution and in the reproduction of the species Argentina and south-southeastern Brazil (Márquez et alll. also aff ect feeding behavior. It is known that Ornate 2000). Hawk-Eagle hunts its prey in roosts on dense vegetation, Observations of birds of prey, like the large Ornate including the edge and the interior of forests patches Hawk-Eagle, are diffi cult to get because of the low (Robinson 1994). Ornate Hawk-Eagle has fast fl ying densities, shy behavior and closed forest preferences attack to reach and capture the prey both in trees and on (Bibby et alll. 1992). For these reasons, basic information the ground (Trail 1987, Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001). of its life history is still poorly known (Robinson 1994, Prey include bird flocks such as egrets in nesting colonies Naveda-Rodríguez 2004). (Hilty 2003), birds that feed in flocks (Kilham 1978, Despite Ornate Hawk-Eagle is often found in forest Robinson 1994), groups of birds in reproductive display fragment edges and even in open degraded areas (Ferguson- such as Guianan Cock-of-the-Rock (Rupicola rupicola), Lees & Christie 2001) it needs preserved habitats for and also mammals such as monkey groups (Hilty 2003). breeding (Lyon & Kuhnigk 1985). Th e combination of Th e literature shows that most of the food items of S. Diet of Ornate Hawk-Eagle Teixeira et al. and feathers) was screened and identified with the hel p ornatus s consists of medium-sized mammals and large of specialists from the Natural History Museum of the birds, which are frequently missing in forest due to the Catholic University of Minas Gerais. defaunation caused by human-induced fragmentation (Kurten 2013); and less frequently, reptiles (Klein et alll. 1988). However, the published data is scarce and there Literature review are few studies with more detailed data (e.g g g., Lyon & To review the available information of the diet of Ornate Kuhnigk 1985 and Madrid et alll. 1992 in Guatemala, Hawk-Eagle, we consulted scientific articles (searched in Klein et alll. 1988 in Brazil, Clinton-Eitniear et alll. 1991 in Belize, and Robinson 1994 in Peru). Understanding the Web of Science, Scirus, JSTOR and Scielo), unpublished diet of S. ornatus s allow us to better planning actions for information, and photographs from citizen science web- pages (e.g., http://www.wikiaves.com.br/, http://ibc. Ornate Hawk-Eagle conservation. lynxeds.com/, http://www.ebird.org). In these cases, This study shows a new predation record by a youn g authors were contacted to confi rm information. S. ornatus s observed at the field. In addition, a data set was collected from the nest of Ornate Hawk-Eagle. Finally, we reviewed dietary records from published articles and RESULTS unpublished data shared between researchers about Ornate Hawk-Eagle. Field observation METHODS On 07 April 2016, a young of S. ornatus s was observed among the branches of a cut tree on the fl oor feeding an adult Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes Field observations burrovianus s) (Fig. 1). On the next day the same bird was Observations and recordings were carried out in the observed again feeding on the carcass in the same place, Conceição do Mato Dentro, southeast Minas Gerais consuming all fl esh and bones, leaving feathers. state, Brazil. The area is inserted in an ecotone between In the following days, new predation records were observed. Th e same young was observed feeding on the areas of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains, located in rest of a mammal and at least two small birds at the same the eastern portion of the Espinhaço Range (18°54.584'S; 43°25.596'W). Th e Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado are location of the previous record. However, it was not considered hotspots of biodiversity (Mittermeier et alll. possible to identify species. In these latter cases the bird 2004), reflected in bird diversity, which have the highest was feeding in the forest edge, between canopy branches. Th e nest material collected revealed a higher number of threatened (54 species in the Atlantic Forest consumption of birds. Five species of birds were identified and 14 in the Cerrado) (Marini & Garcia 2005) and endemic species in Brazil (223 species in the Atlantic by feather remains (Penelope sp., Trogon surrucura, Forest and 29 in the Cerrado region) (Silva 1997). Patagioenas picazuro, Hydropsalis albicollis, Piaya cayana Observations were carried out in semi-deciduous and Strigidae). In addition, two jaws and one pelvic riparian forest areas and rocky outcrops at 816 m altitude. Because of the recent fragmentation, the area is a mosaic between forest fragments and open areas. In 07 April 2016, we observed a young S. ornatus s resting on the ground in an open area, near the forest remnant. Two days later, an individual with adult plumage was found fl ying in thermals. Since then, those individuals were monitored to identify prey captured by the species. Th rough observations and monitoring the young S. ornatus, we discovered, at the same month, the nest between thick forks of Jatobá tree (Hymenaea courbarilll) approximately 25 m height and about 300 m from the predation site. On 01 June 2016 the tree nest was cut down (properly authorized by the competent organs), and we Figure 1. Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus s s) eating a collected the nest with its content. At this moment the Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus s) in 07 young had already abandoned the nest and its withdrawal April 2016, in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southeast of Minas could be done without causing direct damage to the Gerais, Brazil. Photo author: Michele A. Ferreira. birds. All biological material contained in the nest (bones Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 2019 Diet of Ornate Hawk-Eagle Teixeira et al. bone were identified , both attributed to two individuals, DISCUSSION one adult and one juvenile of Paraguayan Hairy Dwarf Porcupine (Coendou spinosus s s). Field observations Literature review The young S. ornatu s seems to feed on a dead individual, since no traces of predation were observed. Jones & We gathered 23 papers, ten books, five records of Dorward (2014) recorded the “interaction” between S. unpublished information and photographs from ornatus s and a bovine femur and suggested that the species citizen science and one conference abstract with some may present scavenging behavior. However, since the information on the species' diet. Most data were from young bird was observed again feeding on the carcass observations of carcasses taken from nest, while other in the consecutive days, it is possible that the vulture provided information about attacks and attempted was captured before the first record. This would explain predation events. the absence of traces of recent predation regarding that Taking together our own field observation and return-hunting behavior is rare among birds of prey (e.g., the literature review, we found 121 taxa consumed by Springer et alll. 2011, Whitacre et alll. 2012). S. ornatus (Table 1). The lar gest number of species (78 Detailed records of predation of S. ornatus s are non- species) was birds, mainly Galliformes, followed by existent or inaccurate. Stiles & Skutch (1989) have already medium-sized mammals (38 species), well represented mentioned that the species “captures birds up size of guans by Rodentia and Primates. Among the Squamata, there or vulture”, and Sigrist (2006) mention that they “catch are few records of predation on Iguana iguana a and some macaws, parrots, vultures, Coragyps atratus”. However, unidentified snakes and lizards . those authors did not provided details, probably referring Table 1. Food items consumed by Spizaetus ornatus based in a literature review and based in the nest material from Minas Gerais, Brazil (current study). Class/Order Family Species Common name Reference Aves Tinamiformes Tinamidae Crypturellus boucardi Slaty-breasted Tinamou Whitacre et al. 2012 Crypturellus Eastern Thicket Whitacre et al. 2012 cinnamomeus Tinamou Crypturellus obsoletus Brown Tinamou Joenck et al. 2011 Crypturellus parvirostris Small-billed Tinamou Greco et al. 2004 Crypturellus soui Little Tinamou Flatten et al. 1989, Whitacre et al. 2012 Crypturellus sp. Tinamou Klein et al. 1988 (variegatus or soui) Crypturellus sp. Tinamou Madrid et al. 1991, 1992 Tinamus major Great Tinamou Flatten et al. 1989, Madrid et al. 1991, 1992, Whitacre et al. 2012 Tinamus sp. (major or Tinamou Klein et al. 1988 guttatus) unidentifie d Tinamou Tinamou Lyon & Kuhnigk 1985 Anseriformes Anatidae Amazonetta brasiliensis Brazilian Teal Greco et al. 2004 Galliformes Cracidae Crax rubra Great Curassow Russell 1964, Flatten et al. 1989, Madrid et al. 1992, Phillips & Hatten 2013, Whitacre et al. 2012 Oreophasis derbianus Horned Guan Gómez-de-Silva 2006 Ortalis garrula Chestnut-winged Olrog 1985 Chachalaca Ortalis guttata Speckled Chachalaca Sigrist 2006 Ortalis motmot Little Chachalaca Klein et al. 1988 Ortalis ruficau da Rufous-vented Friedmann & Smith-Jr. 1955 Chachalaca Ortalis vetula Plain Chachalaca Lyon & Kuhnigk 1985, Flatten et al. 1989, Madrid et al. 1991, 1992, Whitacre et al. 2012 Penelope obscura Dusky-legged Guan Joenck et al. 2011 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 2019 Diet of Ornate Hawk-Eagle Teixeira et al. Class/Order Family Species Common name Reference Penelope purpurascens Crested Guan Kilham 1978, Lyon & Kuhnigk 1985, Madrid et al. 1992, Abadia & Navarro 2011, Whitacre et al. 2012 Penelope sp. (cf. jacuacu) Guan Klein et al. 1988 Penelope sp. (cf. marailll) Guan Klein et al. 1988 Penelope superciliaris Rusty-margined Guan Greco et al. 2004, Lucheti 2015 Penelope sp. (cf. Guan Th is study. superciliaris or obscura) Odontophoridae Odontophorus capueira Spot-winged Wood- Joenck et al. 2011 quail Odontophorus guttatus Spotted Wood-quail Whitacre et al. 2012 Phasianidae Gallus gallus Domestic chicken Friedmann & Smith-Jr. 1955, Ffrench 1991, Robinson 1994 Meleagris ocellata Ocellated Turkey Madrid et al. 1991, 1992, Phillips & Hatten 2013, Whitacre et al. 2012 Suliformes Anhingidae Anhinga anhinga Anhinga Greco et al. 2004 Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Ardea alba Great White Egret Teixeira 2015 Butorides striata Green-backed Heron Aldes Lamounier, pers. comm. Cathartiformes Cathartidae Coragyps atratus American Black Vulture Dickey & van Rossem 1938 Gruiformes Psophiidae Psophia leucoptera White-winged Robinson 1994 Trumpeter Rallidae Aramides cajaneus Grey-necked Wood-rail Robinson 1994, Whitacre et al. 2012 Gallinula chloropus Common Moorhen Greco et al. 2004 Pardirallus nigricans Blackish Rail Greco et al. 2004 Porphyrio martinicus Purple Gallinule Robinson 1994 Columbiformes Columbidae Columba sp. Pigeons Flatten et al. 1989, Madrid et al. 1991, 1992 Columbidae (Columba, Pigeons and Doves Whitacre et al. 2012 Leptotila, or Geotrygon) Geotrygon montana Ruddy Quail-Dove Whitacre et al. 2012 Leptotila plumbeiceps Grey-headed Dove Lyon & Kuhnigk 1985 Leptotila rufaxilla Grey-fronted Dove Joenck et al. 2011 Leptotila verreauxi White-tipped Dove Greco et al. 2004 Patagioenas picazuro Picazuro Pigeon Greco et al. 2004, this study Patagioenas speciosa Scaled Pigeon Whitacre et al. 2012 Opisthocomiformes Opisthocomidae Opisthocomus hoazin Hoatzin Dornas & Pinheiro 2007, Robinson 1994 Cuculiformes Cuculidae Piaya cayana Common Squirrel- Joenck et al. 2011, this study Cuckoo Strigiformes Strigidae Megascops guatemalae Guatemalan Screech- Madrid et al. 1992, Whitacre et al. 2012 Owl Caprimulgiformes Caprimulgidae Hydropsalis albicollis Pauraque Th is study. Trogoniformes Trogonidae Trogon surrucura Surucua Trogon Th is study. Coraciiformes Alcedinidae Megaceryle torquata Ringed Kingfi sher Wetmore 1965 Piciformes Ramphastidae Aulacorhynchus prasinus Emerald Toucanet Abadia & Navarro 2011, Whitacre et al. 2012, Monroy-Ojeda et al. 2014 Pteroglossus castanotis Chestnut-eared Araçari Leonardo Lopes pers. comm. Pteroglossus torquatus Collared Araçari Madrid et al. 1991, Phillips & Hatten 2013, Whitacre et al. 2012 Ramphastos cuvieri Cuvier's Toucan Giudice 2007 Ramphastos sulfuratus Keel-billed Toucan Flatten et al. 1989, Madrid et al. 1991, 1992, Phillips & Hatten 2013, Whitacre et al. 2012 Ramphastos vitellinus Channel-billed Toucan Klein et al. 1988 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 2019 Diet of Ornate Hawk-Eagle Teixeira et al. Class/Order Family Species Common name Reference Picidae Campephilus Pale-billed Woodpecker Whitacre et al. 2012 guatemalensis Melanerpes sp. Woodpecker Madrid et al. 1991 Psittaciformes Psittacidae Amazona autumnalis Red-lored Amazon Whitacre et al. 2012 Amazona farinosa Southern Mealy Amazon Whitacre et al. 2012 Amazona sp. (cf. Probably White-fronted Whitacre et al. 2012 albifrons s s) Amazon Ara macao Scarlet Macaw Klein et al. 1988 Ara sp. Macaw Robinson 1994 Ara sp. (cf. Red-bellied Macaw Klein et al. 1988 Orthopsittaca manilatus s s) Aratinga sp. Parakeet Robinson 1994 Brotogeris sp. Parakeet Robinson 1994 Pionus sp. Parrot Naveda-Rodríguez 2004 Psittacidae (Pionus or Parrot Whitacre et al. 2012 Pionopsitta) Passeriformes Bombycillidae Ptilogonys caudatus Long-tailed Silky- Acosta-Chaves et al. 2012 Flycatcher Cotingidae Rupicola rupicola Guianan Cock-of-the- Trail 1987 Rock Tyrannidae Tyrannus melancholicus Tropical Kingbird Souza 2013 Corvidae Cyanocorax cyanopogon White-naped Jay Luiz Trinchão pers. comm. Psilorhinus morio Brown Jay Whitacre et al. 2012, Flatten et al. 1989, Madrid et al. 1992 Icteridae Cacicus cela Yellow-rumped Cacique Robinson 1994 Dives dives Melodious Blackbird Whitacre et al. 2012 Icteridae Psarocolius montezuma Montezuma Oropendola Whitacre et al. 2012 Undetermined Probably Quiscalus Great-tailed Grackle or Whitacre et al. 2012 mexicanus or Groove-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris Mammalia Carnivora Procyonidae Nasua narica White-nosed Coati Madrid et al. 1991, 1992, Abadia & Navarro 2011, Whitacre et al. 2012 Chiroptera Phyllostomidae Artibeus jamaicensis Jamaican Fruit-eating Whitacre et al. 2012 Bat Artibeus sp. Fruit-eating Bat Whitacre et al. 2012 Unidentifi ed Bats Bat Lyon & Kuhnigk 1985 undetermined Unidentifie d Bats Bat Madrid et al. 1991 Unidentifie d Bats Bat Lyon & Kuhnigk 1985, Madrid et al. 1992 Didelphimorphia Didelphidae Caluromys derbianus Central American Madrid et al. 1992 Woolly Opossum Didelphis marsupialis Common Opossum Klein et al. 1988 Didelphis s sp. Opossum Abadia & Navarro 2011 Marmosa mexicana Mexican Mouse Whitacre et al. 2012 Opossum Metachirus nudicaudatus Brown Four-eyed Klein et al. 1988 Opossum Philander frenatus Southeastern Four-eyed Greco et al. 2004 Opossum Lagomorpha Leporidae Sylvilagus brasiliensis Tapeti Greco et al. 2004 Pilosa Cyclopedidae Cyclopes didactylus Silky Anteater Giudice 2007 Myrmecophagidae Tamandua mexicana Northern Tamandua Abadia & Navarro 2011 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 2019 Diet of Ornate Hawk-Eagle Teixeira et al. Class/Order Family Species Common name Reference Primates Callitrichidae Callithrix penicillata Black-pencilled Greco et al. 2004, Luiz Trinchão pers. comm. Marmoset Saguinus fuscicollis Saddleback Tamarin Robinson 1994, Heymann 1990 Saguinus imperator Emperor Tamarin Terborgh 1983 Saguinus martinsi Martin's Ochraceous Cirino 2015 Bare-face Tamarin Saguinus mystax Moustached Tamarin Heymann 1990 Cebidae Saimiri boliviensis Bolivian/Peruvian Boinski et al. 2003 Squirrel Monkey Saimiri oerstedii Black-crowned Central Boinski et al. 2003 American Squirrel Monkey Saimiri sciureus Common Squirrel Boinski et al. 2003, Lopes et al. 2015 Monkey Saimiri sp. Squirrel Monkey Robinson 1994 Rodentia Cricetidae Sigmodon sp. Cotton Rat Naveda-Rodríguez 2004 Dasyproctidae Dasyprocta azarae Azara's Agouti Joenck et al. 2011, Meller 2015 Dasyprocta leporina Red-rumped Agouti Naveda-Rodríguez 2004 Dasyprocta punctata Central American Whitacre et al. 2012 Agouti Dasyproctidae Agouti Klein et al. 1988 (Myoprocta or Dasyprocta) Myoprocta sp. AcouchiKlein et al. 1988 Echimyidae Proechimys sp. Spiny Rat Robinson 1994 Erethizontidae Coendou mexicanus Mexican Hairy Dwarf Whitacre et al. 2012 Porcupine Coendou sp. Porcupine Klein et al. 1988 Coendou spinosus Porcupine Th is study. Sciuridae Sciurus granatensis Red-tailed Squirrel Naveda-Rodríguez 2004 Sciurus sp. Squirrel Madrid et al. 1991, 1992 Sciurus yucatanensis Yucatan Squirrel Phillips & Hatten 2013, Whitacre et al. 2012, Flatten et al. 1989 Muridae Unidentifi ed rat Rat Flatten et al. 1989 Reptilia Squamata Colubridae Colubridae Unidentifie d snake Robinson 1994 Iguanidae Iguana iguana Common Green Iguana Clinton-Eitniear et al. 1991, Luiz Trinchão pers. comm. Sidnei Dantas pers. comm. Teiidae Unidentifie d lizard Lizard Klein et al. 1988 undetermined Unidentifi ed lizard Lizard Klein et al. 1988 Unidentifi ed snake Snake Klein et al. 1988 to Dickey & van Rossem (1938), who, after dissecting the species could be because S. ornatus s does not carry large stomach of an adult S. ornatus, found rests of a monkey prey, eating them directly on the ground (Whitacre et al. and fresh meat. Studying the area, the authors found a 2012). Th us, to the best of our knowledge, vulture could primate carcass near a Black-Vulture (Coragyps atratus s) be considerate an unusual prey of the Ornate Hawk-Eagle with back parts eaten. The authors then inferred that the and eating the carcass suggests food habitat changes. vulture was killed by the eagle and partially eaten while feeding on the carcass of the monkey already killed a few Literature review and collected nest information days ago. Among the collected material from the nest, only Ornate Hawk-Eagle is considered an opportunistic Penelope e was found, species as large as the New World predator, capturing prey according to availability in the vultures (Dunning-Jr. 2008). Th e lack of other large bird environment (Clinton-Eitniear et alll. 1991). However, Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 2019 Diet of Ornate Hawk-Eagle Teixeira et al. in Guatemala, even in areas where large lizards are Bruno Garzon, Giancarlo Zorzin, André Hirsch, Fabiano abundant, during seven years of study, there were no cases Melo and Anthony Rylands for sample identification. We of predation of these species, indicating that S. ornatus is thank Karla Leal, Ana Paula Otoni and Willian Menq more specialist than thought (Whitacre et alll. 2012). for useful feedbacks, discussion and manuscript revisions. In Manaus, Brazil, the consumption of 45 different Bruna Horta, Marcos Anjos and Luiz Otávio de Oliveira prey was observed, of which 63.3% were identified as helped with field surveys. We thank Jamie Holfeltz and birds, 32.7% were mammals and only 4.1% were reptiles Renzo Giudice for data access. We are grateful to many (Klein et alll. 1988). Madrid et alll. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 1, 2019
Keywords: birds of prey; diet; nesting; predation; review
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