Depression and treatment response: dynamic interplay of signaling pathways and altered neural processes

Depression and treatment response: dynamic interplay of signaling pathways and altered neural... Since the 1960s, when the first tricyclic and monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressant drugs were introduced, most of the ensuing agents were designed to target similar brain pathways that elevate serotonin and/or norepinephrine signaling. Fifty years later, the main goal of the current depression research is to develop faster-acting, more effective therapeutic agents with fewer side effects, as currently available antidepressants are plagued by delayed therapeutic onset and low response rates. Clinical and basic science research studies have made significant progress towards deciphering the pathophysiological events within the brain involved in development, maintenance, and treatment of major depressive disorder. Imaging and postmortem brain studies in depressed human subjects, in combination with animal behavioral models of depression, have identified a number of different cellular events, intracellular signaling pathways, proteins, and target genes that are modulated by stress and are potentially vital mediators of antidepressant action. In this review, we focus on several neural mechanisms, primarily within the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, which have recently been implicated in depression and treatment response. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences Springer Journals

Depression and treatment response: dynamic interplay of signaling pathways and altered neural processes

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2012 by Springer Basel AG
Subject
Life Sciences; Cell Biology; Biomedicine general; Life Sciences, general; Biochemistry, general
ISSN
1420-682X
eISSN
1420-9071
DOI
10.1007/s00018-012-1020-7
pmid
22585060
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Since the 1960s, when the first tricyclic and monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressant drugs were introduced, most of the ensuing agents were designed to target similar brain pathways that elevate serotonin and/or norepinephrine signaling. Fifty years later, the main goal of the current depression research is to develop faster-acting, more effective therapeutic agents with fewer side effects, as currently available antidepressants are plagued by delayed therapeutic onset and low response rates. Clinical and basic science research studies have made significant progress towards deciphering the pathophysiological events within the brain involved in development, maintenance, and treatment of major depressive disorder. Imaging and postmortem brain studies in depressed human subjects, in combination with animal behavioral models of depression, have identified a number of different cellular events, intracellular signaling pathways, proteins, and target genes that are modulated by stress and are potentially vital mediators of antidepressant action. In this review, we focus on several neural mechanisms, primarily within the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, which have recently been implicated in depression and treatment response.

Journal

Cellular and Molecular Life SciencesSpringer Journals

Published: May 15, 2012

References

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