Natural estrogens (e.g., 17β-estradiol or 1,3,5-estratriene-3,17β-diol) have been suggested as one of the major groups of substances that cause endocrine disruption in wildlife. There is little information in the open literature on the fate of natural estrogens in the environment, a fact thathinders the assessment of their ultimate impact on the ecosystem. Aerobic and anaerobic batch experiments involving a 17β-estradiol-degrading culture and a supernatant of activated sludge from a local sewage treatment plant (Burlington, Ontario) were undertaken to assess the persistenceof 17β-estradiol (E2) and its 5 metabolites. The batch experiments showed that E2 and the metabolites werenot persistent and could be rapidly degraded by sewage bacteria.Biodegradation of E2 by sewage bacteria appeared to initiate at the D ring of E2, leading to the formation of the major metabolite estrone (E1). No other major degradation products were noted. However, during the very earlystages of E2 degradation by sewage bacteria, a previouslyunreported metabolite, X1 (5-hydroxy-15-methyl-13-oxatetracyclo[184.108.40.206 <2,7> .0. <11,15>]-heptadeca-2(7),3,5-trien-14-one), was observed. X1 appeared to be a labilemetabolite with a lactone structure, but its significance in thebiodegradation of E2 remained to be elucidated. With theobservation of the new metabolite X1, a metabolic pathway of E2 by sewage bacteria was proposed. Conditions (e.g., aerobic and anaerobic environment) governing the persistence of E2 in sewage were also investigated. Results in this study suggest that the risk of extensive accumulation of natural estrogens normally found in sewage effluents in theenvironment is small, due to their ready biodegradation.
Water, Air, Soil Pollution – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 13, 2004
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera