Conservation of biodiversity in Scandinavian boreal forests: large carnivores as flagships, umbrellas, indicators, or keystones?

Conservation of biodiversity in Scandinavian boreal forests: large carnivores as flagships,... Large carnivores are often used as focal species (indicators, umbrellas, flagships or keystones) in conservation strategies either aimed at conserving carnivores, the rest of the biodiversity that occupies their habitats, or both. We evaluate their suitability for these roles in the context of boreal forest biodiversity conservation in the muti-use landscapes of Scandinavia. The enormous conflicts, especially with livestock, that carnivores cause in these areas makes them very controversial flagships to the extent that it may affect rural people's attitudes to conservation in general. Because of the broad habitat tolerance of large carnivores and their prey, and the difficulties in surveying carnivore numbers, they are very insensitive and impractical indicators of forest biodiversity. This ability of large carnivores to thrive in industrial forests means that the many species that are sensitive to modern forestry will not fall under the umbrella of areas managed for large carnivores. If large carnivores have a keystone function with respect to affecting the density of their ungulate prey it is likely to lead to even further conflicts with hunters who gain economic benefit from harvesting wild ungulates. In other words, none of the classic `ecological' arguments are likely to help justify large carnivore conservation, and large carnivore conservation is unlikely to help conserve the rest of the boreal forest's biodiversity. Based on these arguments we recommend that (1) justification for large carnivore conservation focus on the real philosophical and value orientated reasons rather than ecological justifications, (2) that this conservation should be brought about in practice by dedicated management programs that specifically address the conflicts caused by large carnivores, and (3) that boreal forest biodiversity is best conserved by specific actions designed to establish reserves or change forestry practices. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Biodiversity and Conservation Springer Journals

Conservation of biodiversity in Scandinavian boreal forests: large carnivores as flagships, umbrellas, indicators, or keystones?

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer-journals/conservation-of-biodiversity-in-scandinavian-boreal-forests-large-qH42m0zjQh
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2000 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
Subject
Life Sciences; Evolutionary Biology; Tree Biology; Plant Sciences
ISSN
0960-3115
eISSN
1572-9710
D.O.I.
10.1023/A:1008969104618
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Large carnivores are often used as focal species (indicators, umbrellas, flagships or keystones) in conservation strategies either aimed at conserving carnivores, the rest of the biodiversity that occupies their habitats, or both. We evaluate their suitability for these roles in the context of boreal forest biodiversity conservation in the muti-use landscapes of Scandinavia. The enormous conflicts, especially with livestock, that carnivores cause in these areas makes them very controversial flagships to the extent that it may affect rural people's attitudes to conservation in general. Because of the broad habitat tolerance of large carnivores and their prey, and the difficulties in surveying carnivore numbers, they are very insensitive and impractical indicators of forest biodiversity. This ability of large carnivores to thrive in industrial forests means that the many species that are sensitive to modern forestry will not fall under the umbrella of areas managed for large carnivores. If large carnivores have a keystone function with respect to affecting the density of their ungulate prey it is likely to lead to even further conflicts with hunters who gain economic benefit from harvesting wild ungulates. In other words, none of the classic `ecological' arguments are likely to help justify large carnivore conservation, and large carnivore conservation is unlikely to help conserve the rest of the boreal forest's biodiversity. Based on these arguments we recommend that (1) justification for large carnivore conservation focus on the real philosophical and value orientated reasons rather than ecological justifications, (2) that this conservation should be brought about in practice by dedicated management programs that specifically address the conflicts caused by large carnivores, and (3) that boreal forest biodiversity is best conserved by specific actions designed to establish reserves or change forestry practices.

Journal

Biodiversity and ConservationSpringer Journals

Published: Oct 1, 2004

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off