COMPLEX CLINKER-LESS BINDER MADE FROM REFRACTORY WASTES
AND PRODUCTS BASED ON IT
V. N. Sokov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, pp. 30 – 34, April, 2016.
Original article submitted March 3, 2016.
A clinker-less binder that is based on refractory waste products and includes silica, alumina, calcium oxide,
and calcium sulfate is obtained. The addition of sulfates to the composition, based on filter cakes and grinding
powder, increases the reactivity of the powder’s aluminate component and helps form hydrate compounds.
The chemical relationship between the components of the complex binder is explained and the effects of each
ingredient and the heat-treatment temperature on the properties of the silicate stone are individually examined.
Keywords: complex binder, refractory wastes, activation, hydraulic curing, catalytic activity, exchange reac
tions, amorphous silica, filter cake, heat treatment, isothermal heating, strength, binder service life, technolog
PART 1. MECHANISM OF INTERACTION
BETWEEN THE COMPONENTS OF THE COMPLEX
FILTER-CAKE-BASED BINDER DURING
THE FORMATION OF A SILICATE COMPOSITE
The prospects for the on-site recycling of refractory
wastes to obtain a low-cost clinker-less binder are improved
by two circumstances: the first is the environmental problem
and the need to recycle wastes; the second is the fact that the
use of these waste products can reduce the energy- and mate
rial-related costs of making binders and building materials
based on them, thus also minimizing the use of natural re
sources [1, 2]. In light of this, it is important to establish the
scientific and practical foundations for optimizing the prop
erties of complex non-autoclave-cured binders based on
wastes, including filter cakes, lime, gypsum, and grinding
powders (CLCP wastes) and by-products from the produc
tion of fine-grained concrete, bricks, and facing panels .
One prerequisite for the use of filter cake to obtain a
clinker-less binder is proof of the hypothesis that its hydrau
lic curing can be activated by diaqueous gypsum (wastes
from gypsum molds) and grinding powders which contain
amorphous alumosilicates. The energy of the chemical bonds
of these components — which has a catalytic effect on the
exchange reactions between them — ensures the formation
of stable compounds.
Interest is steadily growing in the use of wastes products
that contain silica. Their use has become firmly entrenched
in the technologies employed to make building materials
which serve as substitutes for cement. Microsilica (the filter
cake) is a fine white powder which has an SiO
about 95% and consists of spherical amorphous particles.
The process of structure formation in aqueous media
used in mixed systems that contain filter cake is a complex
phenomenon that involves different physical and chemical
processes. The basis for assuming the involvement of both of
these types of processes is that structure formation in mixed
systems with finely dispersed materials should include hy
drate-forming chemical reactions between the minerals of
the system and an alkaline component in the aqueous me
dium, in addition to chemical and physical interactions that
take place between newly created components and result in
the formation of a three-dimensional structure. It is natural to
expect the pozzolanic reaction to play an important role in
the interaction of the components of a mixed system during
hydration in the presence of amorphous silica.
The CLCP binder being discussed here includes silica,
alumina, calcium oxide, and calcium sulfate. The lime con
tent of the binder can vary widely and is determined empiri
cally in relation to the requisite mechanical strength and the
of the products that are made with the use
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 57, No. 2, July, 2016
1083-4877/16/05702-0185 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Moscow, Russia.
Aqueous stability here means the ability of a material to with
stand cyclic moistening and drying without significant distortion
or loss of mechanical strength.