The frequencies of the κ-casein gene (CSN3) alleles and genotypes have been determined in five Russian cattle breeds (Bestuzhev, Kalmyk, Russian Black Pied, Yaroslavl, and Yakut breeds) by means of PCR-RFLP analysis using two independent restriction nucleases (HinfI and TaqI) and by allele-specific PCR. Typing alleles A and B of CSN3 is of practical importance, because allele B is correlated with commercially valuable parameters of milk productivity (protein content and milk yield) and improves the cheese yielding capacity. The frequencies of the B allele of CSN3 in the breeds studied vary from 0.16 to 0.50; and those of the AB and BB genotypes, from 0.27 to 0.60 and from 0.02 to 0.23, respectively. The Yaroslavl breed had the highest frequencies of CSN3 allele B and genotype BB (0.50 and 0.23, respectively). The frequencies of the B allele and BB genotype in other breeds studied varied from 0.25 to 0.32 and from 0.03 to 0.09, respectively. In none of the breeds studied have the observed and expected heterozygosities been found to differ from each other significantly. However, the observed genotype distributions significantly differ from the expected one in some herds (in most such cases, an excess of heterozygotes is observed). Two herds of the Yaroslavl breed dramatically differ from each other in the heterozygosity level: a deficit (D = −0.14) and an excess (D = 0.20) of heterozygotes have been observed at the Mikhailovskoe and Gorshikha farms, respectively. In general, however, the heterozygosity of the Yaroslavl breed corresponds to the expected level (D = 0.04). Analysis of breeds for homogeneity with the use of Kulback’s test has shown that all cattle breeds studied are heterogeneous, the CSN3 diversity within breeds being higher than that among different breeds, which is confirmed by low F st values (0.0025–0.0431). Thus, a DNA marker based on CSN3 gene polymorphism is extremely important for breeding practice as a marker of milk quality; however, it is inapplicable to marking differences between breeds or phylogenetic relationships between cattle breeds because of the high diversity with respect to this locus within breeds.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 24, 2007
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