A comprehensive monitoring study, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association and designed in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), measured the levels of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPE) in 30 rivers. The sites, all receiving municipal or industrial wastewater, were selected at random from EPA’s United States river reach database by a statistical procedure. Water column and bottom sediment samples were collected along a perpendicular transect at each site. All samples were assayed for NP and NPE 1 , and the higher ethoxylates (NPE 2 to NPE 17 ) were determined in the water samples. Analysis was by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection of microgram quantities of NPE obtained by extractive steam distillation (NP and NPE 1 ) or a dualcolumn extraction procedure (NPE 2 to NPE 17 ). Sample collection and analytical procedures were validated according to rigorous EPA guidelines, and quality assurance standards were met throughout the study. NP and NPE concentrations in river water were mostly (60 to 75% of the samples) below their detection limits (about 0.1 ppb for NP, NPE 1 , and NPE 2 ; 1.6 ppb for NPE 3–17 ). The highest levels found were about 1 ppb for NP, NPE 1 , and NPE 2 , 15 ppb for NPE 3–17 . A majority of sediment samples contained detectable amounts of NP and NPE 1 , ranging up to 3000 ppb for NP and 170 ppb for NPE 1 . Sediment interstitial water concentrations of NP were estimated to be similar to concentrations in the water column.
Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 1, 1992
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